Explanation:

Groups of hormones from the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and also individual endocrine glands are often organized into a hormone cascade pathway. The circulation of together a cascade occurs together follows:

1. Signal or sensory cells in the brain trigger the hypothalamus come secrete a hormone (example: thyroid-releasing hormone) the either stimulates or inhibits release of a details hormone indigenous the anterior pituitary.

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2. The anterior pituitary hormone (example: thyroid-stimulating hormone) acts upon a target endocrine organization (example: thyroid gland)

3. The endocrine organization secretes a systemic hormone (example: thyroid hormone/T4) the creates a physiological response.

4. The physiological solution by the target cell provides an unfavorable feedback come the brain to curtail the cascade. 


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Example concern #42 : Endocrine system


What facet of development hormone differentiates that from other anterior pituitary hormones?


Possible Answers:

It is the only glycoprotein hormone


It is a steroid hormone


It provides negative feedback directly to the hypothalamus


It produce both tropic and non-tropic effects


Correct answer:

It produce both tropic and also non-tropic effects


Explanation:

Non-tropic hormones are hormone that directly stimulate target cells to induce effects. For example, aldosterone acts straight on the kidney to promote reabsorption the sodium, i beg your pardon causes an increase in blood pressure. This different from tropical hormones, which plot on various other endocrine glands to stimulate (or inhibit) relax of a second hormone. For example, thyroid-stimulating hormone is responsible because that stimulating the relax for thyroid hormone by exhilaration on the thyroid gland.

Growth hormone (GH) stimulates development through both tropic and non-tropic mechanisms. Expansion hormone"s major tropic result is to wake up the release of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) native the liver, which causes bone growth. Expansion hormone additionally stimulates a variety of tissues v non-tropic mechanisms to affect metabolism and also raise blood glucose levels.


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Example question #43 : Endocrine mechanism


Which that the following is most straight regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH)?


Possible Answers:

Calcium ions


Thyroid hormone


Corticosteroids


Glucose


Correct answer:

Calcium ions


Explanation:

Calcium ions are crucial for regular cellular function. Parathyroid hormone is released when blood calcium levels fall below a threshold of around 10mg per 100mL. Parathyroid hormone acts come raise blood calcium through multiple mechanisms. It works directly to boost blood calcium by causing demineralization of bone and by straight stimulating ion reabsorption in the kidneys. It likewise acts indirectly by stimulating conversion of vitamin D, which acts on the intestines to stimulate the uptake of calcium ions from food.


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Example question #44 : Endocrine system


What kind of receptor does this lipid-soluble molecule activate?


Possible Answers:

Post-synaptic receptor


Second messenger receptor


Intracellular receptor


Cell surface (transmembrane) receptor


Correct answer:

Intracellular receptor


Explanation:

This molecule is estrogen, a lipid-soluble endocrine hormone. Estrogen action a standard endocrine hormone. It is secreted and diffuses right into the bloodstream to trigger a physiological response in target cells everywhere in the body the possess estrogen receptors.

Estrogen is a steroid hormone. That nonpolar nature and small size allow it come diffuse through the membrane that target cell, binding to receptors in ~ the cytoplasm. The estrogen receptor is an intracellular receptor whose activation with ligand binding generally results in alteration of gene expression.

 


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Example inquiry #45 : Endocrine device


Which of the complying with is go not explain an endocrine interaction?


Possible Answers:

All the these space endocrine interactions


Adrenocorticotropic hormone is secreted to stimulate secretion the cortisol


Epinephrine is secreted into a synapse to excite a post-synaptic neuron


Insulin is secreted by the pancreas to lower blood-glucose levels


Correct answer:

Epinephrine is secreted right into a synapse to wake up a post-synaptic neuron


Explanation:

Endocrine interaction involve a molecule (hormone) being secreted into the bloodstream to create a response in target cell in a various location. Palliation of blood-glucose levels by insulin and also stimulation that cortisol relax by adrenocorticotropic hormone are both instances of endocrine function.

Though epinephrine deserve to act as a hormone as soon as secreted by the adrenal medulla, the price option indicates that the is gift secreted through a neuron right into a synapse. In this case, epinephrine would be acting as a neurotransmitter, resulting in an impact on a neighboring post-synaptic neuron. This answer go not describe an endocrine interaction.


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Example concern #46 : Endocrine device


Which the the adhering to physiological responses is no under hormonal control?


Possible Answers:

An insect larva transitioning to the pupa stage


Calcitonin lowering the blood calcium levels


Prostaglandin stimulation the uterine smooth muscle contraction


Glucagon result of increasing blood glucose levels


Correct answer:

Prostaglandin stimulation the uterine smooth muscle contraction


Explanation:

In almost all animals, the endocrine and nervous equipment are integrated to respond and also control physiological responses.

In insects, the prothoracic gland publication a hormone referred to as ecdysone at different times to stimulate molting and maturation. Calcitonin and also glucagon room hormones that space secreted through the pancreas and thyroid gland, respectively. They produce these hormone in response to continuous monitoring of blood levels because that glucose and calcium. The hormones are secreted to produce physiological responses in bespeak to carry a go back to homeostasis.

Prostaglandins are neighborhood regulators and produce rapid responses that space confined to a little area. In the example, prostaglandins in semen wake up the smooth muscle the the uterine wall surface to contract to facilitate sperm getting to an egg.


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Example inquiry #47 : Endocrine system


Which the the adhering to in no a dry hormone?


Possible Answers:

Prolactin


Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)


Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)


Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)


Correct answer:

Prolactin


Explanation:

A dry hormone is one the regulates the function of other endocrine cells or glands. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) room the 4 topic hormones the are produced by the anterior pituitary.

Prolactin is likewise produced through the anterior pituitary, yet does not create a an answer from any kind of other endocrine tissues. The stimulation that mammary gland growth and milk manufacturing in mammals, regulation that fat metabolism and also reproduction in birds, and also the regulation the salt and also water balance in freshwater fish space all features of prolactin.


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Example concern #48 : Endocrine mechanism


Which the the adhering to is a hormone that is straight regulated by the nervous system? 


Possible Answers:

Estrogen


Melatonin


Calcitonin


Epinephrine


Correct answer:

Epinephrine


Explanation:

Epinephrine, or adrenaline, is regulated by the nervous device when an eco-friendly stress occurs. Nerve signal travel v the spinal cord come the adrenal medulla, i m sorry secretes epinephrine and also norepinephrine. Release of epinephrine is not resulted in by a tropical hormone or other cell signal, but by straight neural stimulation.

Release the epinephrine is a momentary stress an answer that increases blood pressure, breath rate, glycogen failure to glucose, and also metabolic rate. This boosts alertness, and decreases digestive, excretory and reproductive mechanism activity. Epinephrine is essentially responsible because that the results of the sympathetic nervous system, which is energetic during the "fight or flight" response.


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Example concern #49 : Endocrine mechanism


Following a huge meal, i beg your pardon of the following organic changes occurs?


Possible Answers:

Insulin level spike, facilitating the warehouse of glucose right into cells


Glucagon level spike, fostering the breakdown of glycogen


Gluconeogenesis task increases


Insulin levels drop, facilitating the release of glucose native cells


Glycogenolysis starts to occur


Correct answer:

Insulin level spike, facilitating the warehouse of glucose into cells


Explanation:

Following a large uptake that glucose, the human body will begin to release insulin come facilitate warehouse of the glucose molecules within the cell of the liver, and skeletal muscles.

Glucagon is released as soon as blood glucose levels are low and also promotes boost in cost-free blood glucose. The malfunction of glycogen into totally free blood glucose is a process known together glycogenolysis; this procedure is engendered by glucagon and inhibited by insulin. Gluconeogenesis is the generation that glucose native non-carbohydrate carbon substrates; the is also stimulated through glucagon and inhibited by insulin.


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Example question #50 : Endocrine system


Which that the following is one endocrine organ?


Possible Answers:

The kidney


The gallbladder


The appendix


The spleen


The stomach


Correct answer:

The kidney


Explanation:

Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the circulatory system, whereby they can act top top target effector organs. The kidneys serve both endocrine and exocrine functions. Releasing urine filtrate with ducts is an exocrine function. Kidneys also release the hormone erythropoietin, which disclosure the generation of brand-new red blood cells.

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