"This battle was brought upon us by the children of the good Father who involved take our land from united state without price."

--Spotted Tail

The report and also journal that proceedings the the commission appointed come obtain details concessions indigenous the Sioux Indians, December 26, 1876

The background of indigenous Americans in north America dates ago thousands of years. Exploration and settlement of the western United states by Americans and also Europeans wreaked destruction on the Indian individuals living there. In the 19th century the American journey for development clashed violently with the indigenous American resolve to preserve their lands, sovereignty, and ways that life. The struggle over land has identified relations between the U.S. Government and Native Americans and is well documented in the holdings that the nationwide cg-tower.com. (From the American Originals exhibition script.)

From the 1860s with the 1870s the American frontier was filled through Indian wars and also skirmishes. In 1865 a conference committee started a examine of the Indian uprisings and wars in the West, leading to a Report ~ above the problem of the Indian tribes , which was released in 1867. This study and report through the conference committee led to an act to develop an Indian peace Commission to end the wars and prevent future Indian conflicts. The United says government collection out to establish a series of Indian treaties the would force the ind to give up their lands and also move more west ~ above reservations.

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In the spring of 1868 a conference was hosted at fort Laramie, in existing day Wyoming, that led to a treaty through the Sioux. This treaty to be to lug peace between the whites and the Sioux who agreed to work out within the black Hills preventive in the Dakota Territory.

The black color Hills of Dakota are spiritual to the Sioux Indians. In the 1868 treaty, signed at ft Laramie and also other military short articles in Sioux country, the unified States recognized the black Hills as component of the great Sioux Reservation, collection aside because that exclusive use by the Sioux people. In 1874, however, general George A. Custer led an expedition into the black color Hills accompanied by miners who were search gold. When gold was found in the black Hills, miners were quickly moving into the Sioux searching grounds and also demanding security from the United states Army. Soon, the military was ordered come move against wandering bands of Sioux hunting on the range in accordance with their contract rights. In 1876, Custer, top an army detachment, encountered the encampment that Sioux and Cheyenne in ~ the little Bighorn River. Custer"s detachment was annihilated, but the United states would proceed its battle against the Sioux in the black Hills till the federal government confiscated the land in 1877. To this day, ownership of the black color Hills remains the topic of a legal dispute in between the U.S. Government and also the Sioux.

For additional Reading

Agel, Jerome. Words the Make America Great. New York: arbitrarily House, 1997.

Colbert, David, ed. Eyewitness come America. Brand-new York: Pantheon Books, 1997.

Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David E. America: A rigid History, new York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1992.

Ward, Geoffrey C. The West: An portrayed History. Boston: tiny Brown and also Company, 1996.

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The Documents

Sioux treaty of 1868

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nationwide cg-tower.com and also Records management General records of the united States government Record Group 11 nationwide cg-tower.com Identifier: 299803

General Alfred Terry"s Telegram

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National cg-tower.com and also Records management Records the the Adjutant General"s Office, 1780"s-1917 Record Group 94 nationwide cg-tower.com Identifier: 300379


Letter from Captain man S. Poland

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National cg-tower.com and also Records management Records of joined States military Continental Commands, 1821-1920 Record Group 393 nationwide cg-tower.com Identifier: 301973

Spotted Tail, a Brulé Sioux chief of an excellent Renown

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National cg-tower.com Still snapshot Branch 111-SC-82538 nationwide cg-tower.com Identifier: 285689

Selected Photographs that Custer"s 1874 exploration

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Camp at hidden Wood Creek, 1874 nationwide cg-tower.com and Records management Department that the Army. Office of the chef of engineers Record Group 77 national cg-tower.com Identifier: 519425

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Column that Cavalry, Artillery, and also Wagons, 1874 national cg-tower.com and Records management Department the the Army. Office that the chief of engineers Record Group 77 national cg-tower.com Identifier: 519427

Article Citation

This write-up was composed by Linda Darus Clark, a teacher in ~ Padua Franciscan High School, in Parma, OH.