Pax Mongolia, which method Mongol peace in Latin, is a historiographical hatchet describing the stabilizing results of the Mongol empire in the vast Eurasian are that the Mongols overcame in the 13th and 14th centuries AD.

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Pax Mongolia assisted the advance of commerce and communication in the region, particularly along the Silk Road, and also helped make possible the formation of closer ties between the eastern world and also the west world.

The Mongol Empire emerged a reputation for fiercely guarding the Silk roadway to certain its usefulness for travelers. In contemporary sources, it is no usual to find (probably a tad hyperbole) insurance claims of exactly how “a maiden transporting a nugget of gold on she head can wander safely throughout the realm”.

In a advertising handbook compiled approximately 1340, the Florentine seller Pegolotti explains the situation like this:

The roadway you take trip from Tana to Cathay is perfectly safe, even if it is by day or by night, according to what the vendors say who have actually used it. Just if the merchant…should die upon the road, everything belonging to him will become the perquisite that the lord of the nation in which he dies…And over there is another danger: this is when the mr of the country dies, and also before the new lord who is to have the lordship is proclaimed; during such intervals there have sometimes to be irregularities practised top top the Franks and also other foreigners…”

Eventually, the Mongol empire was divided into 4 khanates – Yuan dynasty, gold Horde, Chagatai Khanate, and also Ilkhanate – yet the Pax Mongolica stayed until the fragmentation of the khanates and also the outbreak that the Black plague in Asia; a an illness which spread along the trade routes, including the Silk Road, and also had much reaching social, economical and political results for both Euroasia and northern Africa.

Genghis Khan and also the promotion of the Silk Road

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Even before the increase of Genghis Khan, towns scattered follow me the Silk road in Mongolia were proactively involved in the trade that took ar along that is route, and this is sustained by both archaeological evidence and also written sources.

When Genghis Khan at some point rose come power and also began his conquests, control of the Silk road trade – and dealing with specific trade problems – were critical part that the development. One of the sources where this becomes obvious is the chronicle the Mongol history written by ‘Ata-Malik Juvaini – himself not a Mongol – in the 1250s.

The thriving of the Silk road under Mongolian rule was because of several factors, consisting of Mongolian promotion of the route and also the development of vital infrastructure that assisted make the trips safer.

Forced re-settling of craftsmen

The Mongolian khans were well-known to periodically forcefully re-settling people along the Silk roadway as they observed fit. The Franciscan monk Willem from Rubruck, that traveled ~ above the Silk road in the 1250s and also visited the Mongol capital Karakorum, does for circumstances write about how that met a goldsmith named Guillaume Bouchier in the capital. Bouchier, a Paris native, had actually been kidnapped by Mongols in ~ Belgrad and also ended up in Karakorum. His wife, also French, had been kidnapped throughout the Mongol intrusion of Hungary.

Another take trip writer, the renowned Marco Polo, defines settlements consisting of whole colonies of weavers from the Middle east that had actually been forcefully relocated to Mongolia and northern China by khans to fulfill Mongolian cravings because that the kind of luxurious center Eastern-style textiles that these weavers can produce.

Connection to Genoa

The european city-state Genoa benefited greatly from Pax Mongolica and from forming partnerships with an effective Mongolian khans. The Genoese go for circumstances sign a contract with details khans that provided Genoa to exclude, privileges in the black color Sea ports, and also coins were issued the bore the engraving of the cannes on one side and also the seal that the financial institution of St. George the Genoa ~ above the other.

In the so late 13th century, Genoan traders purchased a port city ~ above the black color Sea indigenous the gold Horde and also established Kaffa, a growing trading settlement, there. Soon, lock had much more or much less a syndicate on global trade in the black color Sea region and Kaffa became an governmental center for other Genoese settlements that developed around the shores of the black Sea. Kaffa additionally became home to a very huge slave market. In 1204-1261, and also then again in 1296-1307, Kaffa was under the control of Genoa’s arch rival, the Republic the Venice – an additional city-state on the Italian peninsula.

Muslim travel writer Ibn Battuta (b. 1304), who went to Kaffa while the city remained in Genoese hands, writes around Kaffa being a an excellent city and one the the world’s most celebrated ports, through a exorbitant harbor in i m sorry Battuta personal saw approximately 200 ship – both warships and also trading vessels.

One of the factors why the golden Horde to be so interested in preserving an alliance through Genoa was that it aided them through their connection to their allies in Egypt, the Mamluks, because they could communicate with each other via Byzantinum.

Yam

Yam was a postal relay system emerged by the Mongols. When a khan required to conveniently transmitt a blog post of long distances, he might send it through a dispatcher that would carry a distinct badge that authority called a paidze. The paidze provided its carrier the ideal to countless forms of aid within Mongol territory, such as the ideal to exchange tired riding animals for rest ones in ~ the regularly inserted relay stations.

Religion

In his writings, Marco Polo emphasizes the good Mongolian leader Kublai Khan’s willingness to game “all the faiths of the book” (i.e. Judaism, Christianity and also Islam) while in ~ the exact same time practicing the rituals rooted in a timeless Mongolian religion. Kublai Khan additionally built a an excellent observatory because that himself, which he staffed v astrologers / astronomers of various origins, consisting of Muslims native the middle East.

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During Pax Mongolica, Nestorian Christianity went v a resurgence throughout Eurasia, while at the same time the well-kept Silk Road and its connection to trade courses coming up from India aided facilitate the spread out of Tibetan Buddhism come China and also in Mongolian lands. This is likewise a period in history when we deserve to see the Islam faith spread, particularly in east Europe.

Some Mongolian khans walk through religious conversion, however the it seems ~ to have actually stayed clear of imposing counter on your subjects. Their Russian subjects were for circumstances not required to relinquish Christianity even when life under non-Christian khans, and also the trade routes protected by the Mongols additionally helped Russian believer to remain in touch v Christian centers located far to the west that Russia.

Russia under Mongol rule

Initially, the components of Russia that were invaded and also conquered by Mongols went v a duration in the 1230s whereby the construction of masonry churches dropped sharply – other which chroniclers have interpreted as a authorize of poor times. By the finish of the 1200s, there was a revival, and in the 1300s we deserve to see a real structure boom throughout the power of the Mongols the the golden Horde.

One the the Russian urban that thrived under the gold Horse was Novgorod, and also the 14th century advertisement was also an extremely beneficial for Moscow which walk from gift a rather insignificant town on the flow Volga to being a remarkable political and social center. During this era, the princes that Moscow had a an extremely close and well-functioning connection with the Mongol Khans.

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Destruction the irrigation channels in Iran

One area the suffered substantially under Mongol rule and did not recoup from its early devastation during the occupation was a component of Iran that flourished prior come the conquest thanks come a complicated underground network of watering channels. The invading Mongols destroyed this network and also it was not rebuilt again.