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Geographical and also social isolation journey the development of Austronesian languages Cecilia Padilla-Iglesias, Erik Gjesfjeld, Lucio Vinicius
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The beginnings of etymological diversity stay controversial. Researches disagree on whether group functions such as population size or social structure accelerate or decelerate linguistic differentiation. While some analyses the between-group determinants highlight the role of geography isolation and reduced linguistic exchange in differentiation, others suggest that linguistic aberration is driven primarily by warfare amongst neighbouring groups and the use of language as marker of team identity. Below we administer the very first integrated check of the effects of 5 historical sociodemographic and geographic variables on three procedures of etymological diversification among 50 Austronesian languages: rates of word gain, loss and also overall vocabulary turnover. We control for their shared evolutionary histories through a time-calibrated phylogenetic sister-pairs approach. Results present that languages spoken in larger areas create new words in ~ a faster pace. Within-group problem promotes linguistic differentiation by raising word loss, while war hinders linguistic differentiation by decreasing both rates of native gain and loss. Finally, we show that geographical isolation is a strong driver the lexical advancement mainly due to a considerable drift-driven acceleration in rates of word loss. Us conclude that the motor of too much linguistic diversity in Austronesia may have actually been the dispersal of populations across relatively isolated islands, favouring strong social ties among societies rather of war and cultural group marking.


Citation: Padilla-Iglesias C, Gjesfjeld E, Vinicius together (2020) Geographical and social isolation journey the evolution of Austronesian languages. cg-tower.com ONE 15(12): e0243171. Https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243171

Editor: Francesc Calafell, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, SPAIN

Received: June 18, 2020; Accepted: November 16, 2020; Published: December 1, 2020

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and that is Supporting information files.

Funding: The author(s) obtained no particular funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no completing interests exist.


Introduction

Languages are the product of permanent cumulative cultural evolution <1>. As the product of social learning, transmission and use, languages respond to choice pressures posed by local communication contexts deriving indigenous physical, social and also cognitive environments <2,3>. Return evolutionary changes have caused a substantial array of over 7000 languages spoken in the human being today <4>, the inquiries of “why so many languages” and “why for this reason unevenly distributed” are far from being answered. Nonetheless, a substantial corpus of research study has arised on the evolutionary, ecological and also social correlates of the global distribution of etymological diversity <5–15>.

Various researches have focused on demography together a crucial determinant of rates of cultural and linguistic evolution <16–22>. The most discussed demographic aspect is population size, yet studies disagree on the effects. Some analyses suggest that bigger populations promote innovation, are much less prone to cultural drift and random ns of linguistic elements, and may exhibit less stringent enforcement that norms, thus allowing languages to change faster <1,16,17,19,23–25>. In contrast, various other studies have suggested that etymological differentiation have to be more quickly in small populations due an ext rapid diffusion of brand-new features <10>, higher tolerance the diversity <26>, and also stronger an answer to call resulting from trade and also marriage across groups <24>. Current models have actually added population structure as critical demographic variable underlying cultural and linguistic evolution. Because that example, populace density, local interconnectedness and also migrations were declared to pat a vital role in cumulative cultural evolution through facilitating the emergence, diffusion and survival that linguistic developments <18,21,27–30>. In contrast, social, cultural and political settings <31,32> might also promote social team cohesion and also the sharing of linguistic attributes within groups, which would mitigate rates of etymological differentiation <33>.

In addition to social and also demographic factors, geographical isolation may also constrain communication between populations and reduce diffusion of linguistic or cultural traits, enhancing the likelihood of random losses of social items <17,34>, in a process analogous to genetic drift <35>. However, lost items may be replaced by novel technologies that would certainly be an ext easily fixated <36,37>. In contrast, various other studies propose that call is much more effective 보다 isolation in fostering language differentiation, together it facilitates the advent of novel linguistic creates via 2nd language acquisition <38>.

Another element often associated with linguistic diversification is warfare. Native this perspective, conflict in between groups may foster deliberate linguistic differentiation <39,40> as the an outcome of social group noting <41,42>. In various other words, whilst the use of language together an table of contents of social group identity is extensive <39,40,43,44>, speculative paradigms <42>, computational simulations <41> and ethnographic accounts <45> suggest that this indexical function of language may be specifically salient as soon as neighbouring groups are in conflict with one another, as the capability to identify in-groups from out-groups may become a matter of life or death. Thomason <29> defines several instances of this last phenomenon, such together the meeting that a europe missionary attended throughout the 17th century at which the Delaware indians planned come substitute different words for their indigenous lexicon as soon as they visited war against the Iroquois, so that their adversaries wouldn’t understand them. A comparable trend was observed amongst sixteenth-century Portuguese speakers trying come deliberately identify their language from the of your Spanish opponents. A related discussion for a prominent duty of between-group dispute is social group an option <46,47>, which proposes that etymological diversity shows the loved one success of competing social groups and also thus ascribes a an essential role come warfare, extinction and acculturation in the circulation of language <47>. However, empirical validation of those claims remains limited.

One that the reasons for the ongoing debate over language diversification is that previous studies have actually not however attempted to incorporate all the key geographic, social and demographic variables discussed over in a solitary analysis. This task is also more difficult since countless of these determinants act simultaneously and also tend come be much more similar between closely connected languages <22,48>. In addition, most have used contemporary speaker populace sizes in bespeak to explain linguistic development over numerous years <22,48>. This technique is in general problematic for establishing a direction of causality, and in details in Austronesia provided that the demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural landscape has actually dramatically readjusted over the past century first due to european colonialism and imposed etymological policies<49>, and also then due to the existing globalising trends <49–51> and also high rates of populace growth <48>. Hence, if we wish to advice the components that have influenced the evolution of Austronesian languages, they should ideally reflect those cultures prior to early american times (see Bromham et al. <48>). Here we carry out the an initial integrated check of the effect of various socio-demographic and geographic attributes on linguistic diversification among 50 Austronesian languages. The Austronesian family members is the second most varied linguistic group in the world with virtually 1200 languages and has been extensively investigated <40,52>. Austronesian languages tend to be limited to plainly defined islands or archipelagos throughout the Pacific and Indian oceans <49>, which offers suitable context to inspection how location affects genetic or social diversity <53>.

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We derived information worrying the historic (prior to large-scale modernisation) state of 5 variables: population size, geographical isolation, within-group conflict, between-group conflict (same cultural group), and between-group dispute (distinct social groups; Table 1) indigenous 50 Austronesian ethnolinguistic groups (Fig 1). Lock were provided in Poisson generalized linear models together predictors that three measures of linguistic diversification: The rate at which new basic vocabulary items are added to a languages’ vocabulary (word gains), the rate at i m sorry existing basic vocabulary items are lost (word losses), and also the as whole effect of this two processes in the aberration of vocabularies in between pairs of sister language (lexical turnover). One of two people a higher rate of indigenous gains or word losses result in sisters languages having less words in common to define a pre-specified list of ideas (see Methods and Greenhill et al. <22> because that a usage of the exact same method). We used Bayesian Poisson regressions come our 25 sister pairs using a time-calibrated phylogenetic sister-pairs strategy <22,54> to control for mutual evolutionary histories and overcome the problem of statistics non-independence that frequently characterises comparative research studies of social and linguistic evolution <47>.