Learning Objectives

Identify and define the materials of the transmission (linear) design of communication.Identify and also define the components of the communication model that communication.Identify and also define the materials of the transaction version of communication.Compare and also contrast the three models of communication.Use the transaction model of communication to analyze a recent communication encounter.

You are watching: Which model considers both people in a conversation to be senders and receivers simultaneously?

Communication is a complicated process, and it is an overwhelming to recognize where or v whom a interaction encounter starts and ends. Models of interaction simplify the process by giving a visual representation of the various aspects of a communication encounter. Some models explain communication in more detail 보다 others, yet even the most complex model still no recreate what we experience in even a moment of a communication encounter. Models still offer a an useful purpose for students of communication due to the fact that they enable us come see particular concepts and also steps within the process of communication, define communication, and apply interaction concepts. Once you become mindful of how interaction functions, you have the right to think more deliberately with your interaction encounters, i beg your pardon can help you better prepare because that future communication and also learn from her previous communication. The 3 models of interaction we will discuss are the transmission, interaction, and also transaction models.

Although this models of communication differ, they contain some usual elements. The first two models we will certainly discuss, the transmission model and the communication model, encompass the complying with parts: participants, messages, encoding, decoding, and channels. In interaction models, the participants space the senders and/or receivers of messages in a communication encounter. The blog post is the linguistic or nonverbal contents being conveyed indigenous sender to receiver. For example, as soon as you to speak “Hello!” to her friend, girlfriend are sending out a message of greeting that will be got by her friend.


The internal cognitive process that enables participants to send, receive, and understand messages is the encoding and decoding process. Encoding is the process of transforming thoughts into communication. Together we will learn later, the level of aware thought the goes right into encoding messages varies. Decoding is the process of transforming communication into thoughts. Because that example, you might realize you’re hungry and encode the following message come send to your roommate: “I’m hungry. Execute you want to acquire pizza tonight?” together your roommate receives the message, that decodes your communication and also turns it ago into thoughts in order come make meaning out the it. That course, we don’t just communicate verbally—we have various options, or channels for communication. Encoded messages are sent out through a channel, or a sensory course on i m sorry a message travels, to the receiver for decoding. While communication can be sent and received using any sensory path (sight, smell, touch, taste, or sound), most communication occurs through visual (sight) and/or listening (sound) channels. If her roommate has actually headphones on and is engrossed in a video clip game, you might need to gain his fist by waving your hands before you deserve to ask him about dinner.

Transmission (Linear) design of Communication

The transmission model of interaction describes interaction as a linear, one-way process in which a sender deliberately transmits a article to a recipient (Ellis & McClintock 71) . This model concentrates on the sender and message within a interaction encounter. Return the receiver is contained in the model, this function is viewed as an ext of a target or end point rather than component of an continuous process. We room left come presume that the recipient either efficiently receives and understands the message or does not. The scholars that designed this model prolonged on a linear model propose by Aristotle centuries before that included a speaker, message, and also hearer. Lock were additionally influenced by the arrival and spread out of brand-new communication technologies of the time such together telegraphy and radio, and you can probably view these technical influences within the model (Shannon & Weaver 16). Think of just how a radio post is sent from a human in the radio studio come you hear in your car. The sender is the radio announcer who encodes a verbal message that istransfer by a radio tower through electromagnetic waves (the channel) and eventually reaches her (the receiver’s) ear via an antenna and speakers in stimulate to it is in decoded. The radio announcer doesn’t really know if you get his or her message or not, but if the tools is working and also the channel is totally free of static, then there is a good chance the the blog post was effectively received.

Figure 1.1 The Transmission model of Communication

Since this version is sender and message focused, responsibility is placed on the sender to help ensure the message is properly conveyed. This model emphasizes clarity and effectiveness, yet it additionally acknowledges that there are obstacles to effective communication. Noise is anything the interferes through a post being sent between participants in a communication encounter. Even if a speaker sends a clear message, noise may interfere with a message being that s right received and also decoded. The transmission design of interaction accounts for environmental and also semantic noise. Environmental noise is any physical noise existing in a communication encounter. Other human being talking in a overfilled diner might interfere through your capability to transmit a message and have it successfully decoded. While eco-friendly noise interferes through the infection of the message, semantic noise describes noise that occurs in the encoding and also decoding procedure when participants execute not understand a symbol. To use a technological example, FM antennae can not decode to be radio signals and also vice versa. Likewise, most French speaker can’t decode Swedish and also vice versa. Semantic noise can likewise interfere in communication between people speak the same language due to the fact that many words have actually multiple or unfamiliar meanings.

See more: What Do You Call Someone Who Follows The Rules, What Is Another Word For Rule Follower

Although the transmission model might seem an easy or even underdeveloped to us today, the production of this model allowed scholars to study the communication procedure in brand-new ways, which eventually led to more complex models and theories of communication that we will certainly discuss much more later. This version is not quite rich enough to capture dynamic face-to-face interactions, but there are instances in which communication is one-way and linear, specifically computer-mediated communication (CMC). As the complying with “Getting Plugged In” box explains, CMC is integrated into many facets of our resides now and also has opened up up brand-new ways that communicating and also brought some new challenges. Think of text messaging for example. The transmission design of communication is well suited because that describing the action of text messaging because the sender isn’t certain that the meaning was efficiently conveyed or the the article was received at all. Noise can additionally interfere with the infection of a text. If you usage an abbreviation the recipient doesn’t recognize or the phone autocorrects to something totally different than you meant, then semantic noise has actually interfered through the blog post transmission. I enjoy bargain searching at thrift stores, so I just recently sent a message to a friend asking if she wanted to go thrifting over the weekend. After ~ she replied with “What?!?” ns reviewed mine text and saw that my “smart” phone had actually autocorrected thrifting come thrusting! You have likely experienced comparable problems with message messaging, and a rapid Google find for instances of message messages make funny or awkward by the autocorrect feature proves that countless others do, too.