To know the simple properties separating Metals, indigenous Nonmentals and Metalloids

An element is the simplest form of issue that cannot be split into less complicated substances or constructed from simpler substances by any type of ordinary cg-tower.comical or physics method. There space 110 elements known come us, the end of i m sorry 92 are naturally occurring, when the rest have been ready artificially. Elements are further classified into metals, non-metals, and also metalloids.

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Table 2.11.1: Characteristic properties of metallic and non-metallic elements:

Metallic Elements

Nonmetallic elements

Distinguishing luster (shine)

Non-lustrous, assorted colors

Malleable and ductile (flexible) as solids

Brittle, tough or soft

Conduct heat and electricity

Poor conductors

Metallic oxides are basic, ionic

Nonmetallic oxides space acidic, compounds

Cations in aqueous solution

Anions, oxyanions in aqueous solution


Metals

All aspects except hydrogen, which kind positive ions by losing electrons throughout cg-tower.comical reactions are referred to as metals. Hence metals room electropositive elements. Lock are defined by glowing luster, hardness, capacity to resonate sound and also are wonderful conductors the heat and also electricity. Steels are solids under normal conditions except for Mercury.


Physical nature of Metals

Metals room lustrous, malleable, ductile, an excellent conductors that heat and electricity. Other properties include:

State: metals are solids at room temperature through the exception of mercury, i m sorry is fluid at room temperature (Gallium is liquid on hot days). Luster: Metals have the top quality of showing light native its surface and also can be sleek e.g., gold, silver and also copper. Malleability: Metals have actually the capacity to resist hammering and also can it is in made right into thin sheets well-known as foils (a street cube chunk of gold deserve to be pounded right into a slim sheet which will certainly cover a soccer field). Ductility: Metals deserve to be drawn into wires. 100 gm the silver deserve to be drawn into a slim wire around 200 meters long. Hardness: All metals are hard other than sodium and potassium, which room soft and can be reduced with a knife. Valency: Metals have 1 to 3 electron in the outermost covering of their atoms. Conduction: metals are great conductors because they have complimentary electrons. Silver and also copper are the two finest conductors the heat and also electricity. Lead is the poorest conductor that heat. Bismuth, mercury and also iron are likewise poor conductors Density: Metals have actually high density and are an extremely heavy. Iridium and osmium have the highest densities whereby as lithium has actually the shortest density. Melting and Boiling Points: Metals have high melting and boiling point. Tungsten has actually the highest melting suggest where as silver has low boiling point. Sodium and potassium have low melting points.

cg-tower.comical nature of Metals

Metals space electropositive elements that generally form basic or amphoteric oxides through oxygen. Various other cg-tower.comical properties include:

Electropositive Character: steels tend to have low ionization energies, and typically shed electrons (i.e. Room oxidized) when they experience cg-tower.comical reactions They usually do not accept electrons. Because that example:

Alkali steels are always 1+ (lose the electron in s subshell) Alkaline planet metals are constantly 2+ (lose both electrons in s subshell) change metal ions execute not monitor an apparent pattern, 2+ is common, and also 1+ and also 3+ are also observed compounds of steels with non-metals tend to it is in ionic in nature Most metal oxides are basic oxides and also dissolve in water to kind metal hydroxides:

Metal oxide + water -> metal hydroxide

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) -> 2NaOH(aq)

CaO(s) + H2O(l) -> Ca(OH)2(aq)

steel oxides exhibit your basic cg-tower.comical nature by reacting with acids to type salts and also water:

Metal oxide + acid -> salt + water

MgO(s) + HCl(aq) -> MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

NiO(s) + H2SO4(aq) -> NiSO4(aq) + H2O(l)


Example

What is the cg-tower.comical formula for aluminum oxide?

Solution

Al has 3+ charge, the oxide ion is O2-, for this reason Al2O3


Example

Would you expect it to be solid, liquid or gas in ~ room temp?

Solutions

Oxides of steels are characteristically solid at room temp


Example

Write the balanced cg-tower.comical equation because that the reaction that aluminum oxide with nitric acid:

Solution

Metal oxide + mountain -> salt + water

Al2O3(s) + 6HNO3(aq) -> 2Al(NO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)


Nonmetals

Elements that often tend to obtain electrons to kind anions throughout cg-tower.comical reactions are called non-metals. These space electronegative elements. They are non-lustrous, brittle and poor conductors the heat and also electricity (except graphite). Non-metals have the right to be gaseous, liquids or solids.


Physical properties of nonmetals:

Physical State: most of the non-metals exist in 2 of the three says of issue at room temperature: gases (oxygen) and solids (carbon). Non-Malleable and Ductile: Non-metals are an extremely brittle, and also cannot it is in rolled right into wires or pounded into sheets. Conduction: they are bad conductors that heat and also electricity. Luster: These have no metallic luster and also do no reflect light Conductivity: poor conductors that heat and also electricity Melting and Boiling Points: The melt points of non-metals space generally reduced than metals Seven non-metals exist under standard problems as diatomic molecules: H2(g) N2(g) O2(g) F2(g) Cl2(g) Br2(l) I2(l) (volatile liquid - evaporates readily)

cg-tower.comical nature of Nonmetals

Non-metals have a tendency to obtain or share electron with other atoms. They are electronegative in character. Nonmetals, when reacting through metals, often tend to obtain electrons (typically attaining noble gas electron configuration) and become anions:

Nonmetal + metal -> Salt

<3Br_2(l) + 2Al_(s) ightarrow 2AlBr_3(s)>

compound composed completely of nonmetals room molecular substances (not ionic). Lock generally form acidic or neutral oxides with oxygen that that dissolve in water reaction to kind acids:

Nonmetal oxide + water -> acid

(carbonated water is slightly acidic)

Nonmetal oxides can incorporate with bases to type salts.

Nonmetal oxide + base -> salt


Metalloids

Properties intermediate between the metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are valuable in the semiconductor industry.

metals Non-metals Metalloids
Gold Oxygen Silicon
Silver Carbon Boron
Copper Hydrogen Arsenic
Iron Nitrogen Antimony
Mercury Sulphur Germanium
Zinc Phosphorus

Physical properties of Metalloids

State: They room all solid in ~ room temperature. Conduction: part metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, can act as electrical conductors under the appropriate conditions, for this reason they are dubbed semi-conductors.

Luster: Silicon because that example shows up lustrous, however is not simple or ductile (it is brittle - a characteristic of some nonmetals). It is a much poorer conductor of heat and also electricity 보다 the metals.

Solid Solutions: castle can kind alloys with other metals.

cg-tower.comical properties of Metalloids

your physical properties tend to be metallic, but their cg-tower.comistry properties tend to be non-metallic. The oxidation number of an element in this group can selection from +3 come -2, depending upon the group in which that is located.

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Trends in Metallic and Nonmetallic Character

Metallic character is strongest because that the aspects in the leftmost part of the periodic table, and tends to decrease together we relocate to the right in any duration (nonmetallic character boosts with raising ionization values). Within any type of group of aspects (columns), the metallic character increases from peak to bottom (the ionization values usually decrease together we relocate down a group). This general trend is not necessarily observed v the transition metals.