Rock bike - mineral (4A)Lab


OBJECTIVES: exploring the qualities of minerals. Distinguishing mineral attributes. VOCABULARY: shade density feeling hardness shape texture MATERIALS:

Students look at minerals and determinekey characteristics.

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crystals the feldspar

BACKGROUND: A mineral is "a normally occurring, inorganic aspect or compound through a definite chemistry composition, a characteristic crystalline structure, and also distinct chemistry properties". Minerals have to be naturally produced or else they space classified as fabricated substances. Minerals space the structure blocks of rocks.

Most minerals have actually crucial characteristics that assist in your identification. Halite (table salt), i m sorry is composed of sodium (element #11) and also chlorine (element #17) is a great example. The key characteristics of halite are its cubic crystal shape, lack of color (it is clear) and also salty taste. Learning these characteristics helps identify halite.


In the lab, the college student will job-related at station to start to distinguish the crucial characteristics of minerals. These incorporate color, hardness, density, crystal shape, texture and also cleavage.

prior to lab, cut the "Mineral Cards" because that each terminal listing the inquiries that you desire the students to answer. Location the cards in front of the minerals. If the map asks the student to perform a test, such as scratching the mineral through a nail, make certain that the correct products are available. utilizing the routine Table Placemats, evaluation the composition of each of the minerals in the lab. You deserve to use the cards that accompany the specimens together a overview to composition. Direct the students to find the elements on the routine table together you tell them the "ingredients." ~ students have actually completed the lab, discuss the specific an essential characteristics of each mineral. Usage the information below as a guide.

QUARTZ is a normally clear mineral. It can occur in nearly any color, however, if it consists of traces of other elements. Its natural crystal shape is 6 sided. Quartz is very hard (7 ~ above Mohs hardness scale). It can not be scratched by a stole knife or nail. Quartz is the most usual mineral ~ above the surface of the Earth. It is uncovered in almost every geology environment and also is a ingredient of practically every rock type. Quartz is provided to make glass, electric components, optical lenses, and abrasives. It is additionally used together a gemstone, ornamental stone, and also building material.

breaks into 8 sided polygons (dipyramidal shapes). It has a hardness of 4 top top the Mohs scale. Fluorite is prized for its glassy luster and rich variety of colors, consisting of purple, blue, green, yellow, colorless, brown, pink, black and also reddish orange. Many fluorite indigenous the United says is clear to violet in color. The word fluorite comes from its use as a flux in steel and aluminum processing. Fluorite is also used together a source of fluorine for hydrofluoric acid and also fluorinated water.

PYRITE shows cubic crystal forms. It has a metallic luster, and also a distinctive brassy-to yellow color. Due to the fact that it is composed partially of iron, is really dense. Because of its color, pyrite is the standard "fool"s gold." Pyrite has actually been mined because that its sulfur contents for usage in defense and chemical industries.

GYPSUM crystals space tabular in shape. Gypsum ranges from white to pink in color. That is really soft, and can be scratched by a fingernail. Gypsum is among the an ext common mineral in sedimentary environments. It often creates in desert locations where evaporation rates are high, by precipitation from very saline water. Gypsum’s uses include plaster, wall board, cement, fertilizer, paint filler, and ornamental stone.

CALCITE creates the rhombohedral and hexagonal prism shapes. It occurs in light shades the white, yellow, orange, blue, pink, red, brown, green, black, and also gray. It may likewise be colorless. Calcite fizzes easily with HCl. The is soft (about 3 on the hardness scale) and is conveniently scratched with a knife. Calcite may be clear to yellow in color. Once a clear calcite crystal is placed over picture or word, it shows up doubled when viewed with the crystal. This is called twin refraction.

MICA crystals happen in an extremely thin sheets. This is an excellent example of a mineral with one cleavage; the sheets type along a plane of weak atomic structure in the mica crystals. Mica is offered as a heat insulator. There room two common varieties of mica: a) biotite(black to brown color) and b) muscovite (clear, white, or silver- in color). Mica is a usual rock creating mineral; it is present in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.

GALENA develops cubic crystals through a characteristics stepped pattern led to by complexities in the mineral’s decision structure. Galena has a metallic luster, and is gray to silver in color. That contains big amounts that the facet lead, so the is really dense. Galena is commonly mined and processed because that lead, however, some galena crystals contain as much as 1% silver. Galena is therefore also vital source the silver.

FELDSPAR has a complex, around rhombohedral crystal shape. There are many types of feldspars consisting of plagioclase (white) and also orthoclase (pink-orange). Back opaque, feldspar crystals have a glassy luster. Quartz and also steel will scratch feldspar. Feldspar is a usual mineral in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Feldspars are provided in making ceramics, as a building material, and also as gemstones (the range moonstone).

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ULEXITE grows in fibrous crystals. This provides the mineral a one-of-a-kind property; for facility optical reasons, images have the right to travel along the fibrous crystals with small distortion. Because that this reason, ulexite is often called "TV rock," although the is a mineral. Ulexite is white, and a resource of the facet boron. Ulexite precipitates from lakes in arid regions as result of evaporation. The lakes type only throughout rainy seasons because of runoff from adjacent mountains. Ulexite is provided to make some detergents, particularly for washing clothes

HEMATITE crystals often tend to be really small. This mineral is metallic; it may either appear as a shining steel shade or a dull red. Once scratched on porcelain, hematite shows a red-brown streak. Hematite gets its name therefore color, indigenous a Greek word definition "blood_like." old superstition organized that big deposits the hematite developed from the blood that flowed right into the floor after large battles. That contains huge amounts that iron, therefore hematite is quite dense. Hematite is an important ore that iron and also its red color lends itself well for usage as a pigment.