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history that Latin America, background of the an ar from the pre-Columbian duration and including emigration by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and breakthroughs to the end of the 20th century.


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Did Chile get its independence in 1818? go the Incan people rule over ancient Mexico? Sort truth from fiction in this journey with Latin America.

Since the Spanish and also Portuguese facet looms so large in the history of the region, it is sometimes proposed that Iberoamerica would certainly be a far better term 보다 Latin America. Latin seems to imply an equal prestige of the French and also Italian contributions, i m sorry is much from being the case. Nevertheless, consumption has fastened ~ above Latin America, and it is preserved here.

This short article treats the history of Latin America indigenous the an initial occupation by europe to the so late 20th century, through an initial consideration of the indigenous and Iberian background. For more-detailed coverage that the area before European contact, see pre-Columbian civilizations. For added information around the europe exploration and also colonization that Latin America, see colonialism. Because that information around the individual nations of main America and also South America and also the Romance-language-speaking Caribbean countries, see specific country write-ups by name: for main America, seeBelize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama; for south America, see Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (a départément of France), Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and also Venezuela; and, for the Caribbean, see Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and also Haiti. See also the write-ups on the dependencies and also constituent entities Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Puerto Rico. The physical and also human location of the continents, with some historical overview, are provided in the write-ups North America and South America. Over there is additionally a separate post Latin American literature. For conversation of major cities the Latin America and also their histories, see certain articles by name—e.g., Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, and also Mexico City.


The background

Though the problems of pre-Columbian America and 15th-century Iberia are beyond the limit of Latin American background proper, they need to be given factor to consider in that connection. Not only did the geography of precontact America persist, however both the brand-new arrivals and the native inhabitants lengthy retained your respective general characteristics, and it was the fit in between them that identified many aspects of Latin American evolution.

The native world and the word “Indian”

From the moment of Columbus and also the so late 15th century forward, the Spaniards and Portuguese called the peoples of the americas “Indians”—that is, residents of India. Not just is the term erroneous by origin, however it did not correspond to anything in the psychic of the indigenous people. They had no word an interpretation “inhabitant the the western Hemisphere,” and also most of castle seem no to have adopted any equivalent even after century of contact. Any kind of such word describes commonalities watched from the outside and not to any type of unity perceived by the citizens of the ameri themselves. The aboriginal peoples were significantly varied, far an ext so than the Europeans; they were spread over a large area and only faintly conscious of each other from one major region to the next.

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Nonetheless, the aboriginal peoples had several points in common. They were closely related to one an additional in organic terms, and their languages, despite they can not be shown to have a typical origin, often tend to share numerous general features. All mutual an isolation native the an excellent mass of humankind inhabiting Eurasia and also Africa, that were in some way in call with one another. The residents of America all lacked immunities come diseases typical in Europe and also Africa. They had actually some impressive technologies to your credit, including the trained plants of Mesoamerica and also the Andes, however all had been kept apart from things that had actually long because spread over much of the rest of the globe, consisting of steel, firearms, horses, wheeled vehicles, long-distance shipping, and alphabetic writing. As a result, the indigenous peoples, when in contact, were really vulnerable come the outsiders. Epidemics raged wherever intruders appeared; with their materials and also techniques the Europeans were able to conquer whenever lock felt it imperative to do so. There is, then, at times, a need for a common term, and if one realizes its limitations, “Indian” may do and another.