John F. Kennedy gotten in the White house wanting to develop an alternate to Eisenhower’s plan of substantial Retaliation. Kennedy thought Eisenhower’s emphasis on occurring nuclear weapons had greatly weakened the joined States’ standard forces. The new president and his Secretary that Defense, Robert McNamara, presented the policy of “flexible response.” In explicate the approach, Kennedy proclaimed that the nation must be all set “to deter all wars, general or limited, atom or conventional, big or small.” Under this approach, the United says could speak to on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMS) or special Forces, including the newly created Green Berets, to battle communist aggression.

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Fidel Castro

Kennedy’s an initial foreign plan test did not come in Europe, fairly 90 miles off the shore of Florida. In 1959, a revolutionary called Fidel Castro led a effective overthrow of Cuba’s dictator, Fulgencio Batista. The united States easily recognized Castro’s brand-new government, but relations in between the U.S. And Cuba shortly deteriorated. Almost immediately after ~ achieving power, Castro collection out to finish Cuba’s dependency on the United says by nationalize businesses and confiscating personal property, much of which was owned by American companies. In response, the joined States imposed an financial embargo of the island and reduced import quotas on key items, including sugar. The Soviet Union offered Cuba financial aid, and Castro created ties through the Soviet Union. In 1961, Castro announced the he to be a Marxist-Leninist and also that Cuba to be a communist nation.

During Eisenhower’s 2nd administration, the CIA started planning for a covert operation designed come topple Castro’s government. Upon becoming president, Kennedy the review the plan and also decided to move forward with the operation. ~ above April 17, 1961, nearly 1,500 CIA-trained Cuban exiles got into Cuba in ~ the only of Pigs. As a result of negative planning and bad intelligence, Castro’s troops quickly defeated the invaders. Embarrassed, chairman Kennedy appeared before the American public and also accepted full responsibility for the failed mission.

building and construction of the Berlin wall surface



Constructing the Berlin wall surface

Kennedy’s attention turned come Europe throughout the summer the 1961. During a summit conference in June, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union proposed reuniting Berlin under eastern Germany’s control. In part, the Soviet leader’s proposal resulted from the reality that eastern Germany’s best and also brightest escaped the nation through West Berlin. Kennedy refused and also on July 25 yielded a televised resolve to the American world in which he defined the defense that Berlin as “essential to the entire totally free World.” He adhered to up by asking for an increase in defense spending and also called up over 150,000 reservists to active duty. Khrushchev backed off from his proposal, and also in respectable 1961 the Soviet Union sealed off east Berlin v barbed cable and, later, a concrete wall surface that came to be known as the Berlin Wall.


Reconnaissance picture showing missile web page in Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis

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Kennedy’s room room throughout the Cuban Missile crisis

In 1962, U-2 spy plane flying end Cuba discovered virtually complete missile website being built on the island. The Soviets had begun supplying Castro v missile modern technology to protect him indigenous an American invasion. In all, over thirty sites to be constructed, qualified of transporting missiles through 1000 and also 2000 mile ranges. Kennedy immediately demanded the the Soviets eliminate the missiles native the island. Privately, the president contemplated his options, which included air strikes, a armed forces invasion, or a blockade the the island. Kennedy made decision to blockade the island and also went ~ above television and also radio top top October 22 to inform the American civilization of the missiles and his decision to quarantine Cuba. Meanwhile, American forces began practicing in Florida for a feasible invasion that Cuba while strategy Air Command preserved a fleet of atom bomb transferring B-52s in the waiting at every times. In exchange because that reassurances native Kennedy that the United states would not invade Cuba, the Soviets gotten rid of the missiles native Cuba and also the dilemm passed.