While big parts of south America, Africa and also Asia are located in the southerly Hemisphere, the just two continents whose entire territory is southern of the Equator are Australia and also Antarctica. Every of these continents has big areas the are inhospitable to human life, but past that lock have small in common.

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The continent of Australia is sometimes dubbed the Land down Under because it"s so far south. The entire continent is one country, break-up into eight territories and also states. That is the world"s the smallest continent however the sixth-largest country. Australia is nearly 3,200 km. (1,988 mi.) from its northern coastline to the southern shore and virtually 4,000 km. (2,485 mi.) from east to west, for a total of 7,686,850 sq. Kilometres (2,967,909 sq. Mi). Australia spans three time zones and also includes mountains, flat lands, deserts and also tropical jungles. The seasons are reversed indigenous those in the north Hemisphere, therefore Australia"s winter months space June v August and its summer months room December through February.


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Most Australians live follow me the country"s coasts, an especially between Cairns and also Adelaide. Sydney and Melbourne are the country"s largest cities, and also they space both major, international metropolitan areas with social and historic landmarks that make them famous tourist destinations. The internal of the country is flat, barren and also largely unpopulated -- often referred to as the Outback -- yet it supports a variety of animal and plant species that have adjusted to the harsh environment. More than 80% that Australia"s mammals, landlocked fish and flowering plants space not found anywhere rather on Earth.


Slightly bigger than Australia and fifty percent as large as the joined States, Antarctica is the continent in ~ the bottom of the world. In ~ the thick paper of ice that covers 98% that the continent, Antarctica is mountainous and rocky. The Transantarctic mountains divide the continent right into two areas: east Antarctica, which is about 488 meter (533 yds.) above sea level, and also West Antarctica, which different in altitude. Lake Vostok, the continent"s biggest lake, and one of the biggest in the world, is spanned by a 4-kilometer-thick (nearly 2.5 mi.) ice sheet.


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Despite having actually the world"s coldest temperatures, Antarctica supports a range of wildlife. Whales, seals, penguins have all adjusted to the continent"s harsh conditions by developing thick coats or skins, great of blubber and small extremities. Additionally, realm penguins have arisen huddling behaviors to retain body heat. Seven countries have territorial cases to parts of Antarctica. However, under the Antarctic Treaty, they have agreed to neglect territorial borders and collaborate come study and protect the continent.


Stephanie Mitchell is a skilled writer who has authored websites and also articles for genuine estate agents, self-help coaches and casting directors. Mitchell additionally regularly to edit websites, service correspondence, resumes and full-length manuscripts. She graduated from Syracuse college in 2007 with a Bachelor of well Arts in music theater.

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