When zinc metal is submerged into a quantity of aqueous \(\ceHCl\), the adhering to reaction occurs (Figure \(\PageIndex1\)):

\<\ceZn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → H2 (g) + ZnCl2(aq) \labeleq:1\>

This is one example of what is sometimes called a single instead of reaction due to the fact that \(\ceZn\) replaces \(\ceH\) in mix with \(\ceCl\).

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Example \(\PageIndex1\): Reducing silver- Ions

Write and also balance the oxidization reaction that has silver ions and aluminum steel as reactants and also silver metal and aluminum ion as products. Determine the problem oxidized, problem reduced, reducing agent and also reducing agent.


We begin by using icons of the elements and also ions to represent the reaction:

\<\ceAg^+ + Al → Ag + Al^3+ \nonumber\>

The equation looks balanced as that is written. However, once we compare the overall charges on each side that the equation, we uncover a charge of +1 top top the left however a fee of +3 ~ above the right. This equation is not appropriately balanced. Come balance it, let us write the two half reactions. Silver- ions space reduced, and it take away one electron to change Ag+ to Ag:

Reduction half-reaction: \<\ceAg^+ + e^− → Ag \nonumber\>

Aluminum is oxidized, shedding three electrons to readjust from Al come Al3+:

Oxidation half-reaction: \<\ceAl → Al^3+ + 3e^− \nonumber\>

To combine these two half reactions and cancel the end all the electrons, we should multiply the silver- reduction reaction by 3:


Exercise \(\PageIndex1\)

Write and also balance the redox reaction that has calcium ions and potassium metal as reactants and calcium metal and potassium ion as products. Determine the substance oxidized, substance reduced, reducing agent and reducing agent.


Reduction: Ca2+ + 2e− → Ca

Oxidation: 2 (K → K+ + e−)

Combined: Ca2+ + 2K → Ca + 2K+

The substance oxidized is the reactant that had undergone oxidation: K The substance reduced is the reactant that had actually undergone reduction: Ca2+ The reducing agent is the same as the substance oxidized: K The oxidizing agent is the very same as the problem reduced: Ca2+

Potassium has been used as a reducing certified dealer to acquire various metals in their elemental form.

To her Health: oxidization Reactions and Pacemaker Batteries

All batteries usage redox reaction to it is provided electricity because electricity is basically a present of electron being moved from one problem to another. Pacemakers—surgically implanted tools for regulation a person’s heartbeat—are it is provided by tiny batteries, for this reason the appropriate operation that a pacemaker depends on a oxidation reaction.

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Pacemakers supplied to be powered by NiCad batteries, in i beg your pardon nickel and cadmium (hence the surname of the battery) react with water follow to this oxidation reaction:

\<\ceCd(s) + 2NiOOH(s) + 2H2O(ℓ) → Cd(OH)2(s) + 2Ni(OH) 2(s) \nonumber\>

The cadmium is oxidized, while the nickel atom in NiOOH are reduced. Other than for the water, all the substances in this reaction space solids, allowing NiCad batteries to it is in recharged numerous times before they stop operating. Unfortunately, NiCad batteries are reasonably heavy battery to be carrying about in a pacemaker. Today, the lighter lithium/iodine battery is supplied instead. The iodine is dissolved in a hard polymer support, and also the in its entirety redox reaction is together follows:

\<\ce2Li(s) + I2(s) → 2LiI (s) \nonumber\>

Lithium is oxidized, and also iodine is reduced. Although the lithium/iodine battery can not be recharged, one of its advantages is the it lasts approximately 10 years. Thus, a human with a pacemaker go not need to worry around periodic recharging; about once per decade a person requires minor surgical treatment to replace the pacemaker/battery unit. Lithium/iodine battery are also used to strength calculators and watches.

Figure \(\PageIndex1\): A small button battery like this is supplied to strength a watch, pacemaker, or calculator. (CC BY-SA; Gerhard H Wrodnigg via Wikipedia)