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The phylum Arthropoda is frequently divided into 4 subphyla that extant forms: Chelicerata (arachnids), Crustacea (crustaceans), Hexapoda (insects and also springtails), and Myriapoda (millipedes and also centipedes). Some zoologists believe that arthropods possessing just single-branched appendages, an especially the insects, centipedes, and millipedes, progressed from a different ancestor and therefore team them in ~ a separate phylum—the Uniramia, or Atelocerata; however, in this treatment these forms are dispersed amongst several subphyla. In addition, the phylum Arthropoda includes the die out subphylum Trilobitomorpha. This group is comprised of the trilobites, the leading arthropods in the beforehand Paleozoic seas (541.0 million come 251.9 million years ago). Trilobites became extinct during the Permian duration (298.9 million to 251.9 million year ago) at the end of the Paleozoic Era.
The myriapods (centipedes, symphylans, millipedes, and pauropods) live in ~ stones and also logs and in leaf mold; insects are discovered in all species of terrestrial habitats and also some have actually invaded fresh water. The sea has actually remained the domain the the crustaceans, however, and only in ~ its very edges space insects (subphylum Hexapoda) found.
A south African millipede.
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The subphylum Crustacea consists of mostly maritime arthropods, though numerous of its members, such together the crayfish, have actually invaded new water, and also one group, the pill bugs (sow bugs), has come to be terrestrial, life beneath stones and also logs and in sheet mold. In the sea, large crustaceans such together crabs and shrimps are common bottom-dwelling arthropods. Many minute types of crustaceans (particularly the copepods) are critical component the the zooplankton (floating or weakly swim animals) and serve as food for various other invertebrates, fishes, and also even whales.