H2O is the molecule formula the water, one of the significant constituents of the Earth. A single molecule is made up of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, which are bonded v the covalent bond. Moreover, 2 or more H2O molecules connect with the help of hydrogen bonds to type a compound.

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It is amazing to realize the the covalent bonds are stronger than the hydrogen bonds, the is the factor why water easily reacts v the majority of the chemical elements from the periodic table.

The Lewis structure, or also called an electron dot structure, is a diagrammatic depiction of determining the total number of valence electrons present in an atom, which are ready to undergo bond formation to kind a molecule and ultimately a compound.

The valence electrons are shown by drawing them together dots about the price of the atom, largely in pairs.

The maximum number of dots that deserve to be attracted is eight per atom, together per the octet rule. Moreover, the development of a bond since of reacting valence electron are presented with the help of the lines.

The atomic variety of a hydrogen atom is one, which renders its electronic configuration 1s1. Together the 1s shell can accommodate a best of 2 electrons, over there is a dearth that one an ext electron.

It renders a solitary hydrogen atom to have actually one valence electron.

Besides this, in the situation of oxygen, its digital configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4 whereby 2p shell deserve to accommodate 6 electrons.

As there is a dearth of two electrons, the total variety of valence electron in an oxygen atom is six.

What are the valence electrons?

The valence electrons are ‘free electrons’ present in the outermost covering of the atom. The nucleus stop the outer shell weakly together it is farthest in the distance.

Moreover, if the valence electrons are unpaired, they come to be highly reactive in nature by one of two people accepting or donating electrons to stabilize its outermost shell.

It is amazing to realize that the larger the variety of valence electrons, the more powerful will be the capability to expropriate the electrons.

Whereas, the smaller the number of valence electrons, the stronger will it is in the capability of the atom come donate them.

What is the Octet rule?

According to the Octet rule, the best of valence electrons that an atom deserve to have is eight. Moreover, these eight electron are attracted only around the price of the atom in the Lewis structure.

The oxygen has actually a dearth of 2 valence electrons. Whereas, the two hydrogen atoms have actually a dearth of two valence electrons in total.

The Lewis framework of H2O is drawn in such a manner the the deficiency of every atom is fulfilled.

Lewis framework of H2O

The Lewis framework of hydrogen and also 2 oxygen atoms shows a full of eight valence electrons participate in the bond development to kind a single triatomic H2O molecule.

Here, we should understand exactly how the Lewis structure is attracted for the H2O molecule:

Look for the total valence electrons: it is eight to form a solitary H2O molecule.Look for how countless electrons room needed: that is 4 for one water (H2O) molecule according to the octet rule.Find the total number of bonds forming: solitary covalent bonds in between each oxygen and also hydrogen atom.Choose a central atom: The Oxygen atom will be the main atomDraw the lewis diagram:


The Geometrical framework of the H2O molecule

The bond angle amongst hydrogen-oxygen-hydrogen atoms (H-O-H) is 104.5°. Indigenous this, it deserve to be interpreted that the geometrical structure of a solitary H2O molecule is bent.

It is described with the aid of the Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, which says why regardless of of having actually two bag of lone electrons on the oxygen atom the bond edge is decreased to 104.5°.

The right bond angle for a bent-shaped molecule is 109.5°.

According to the Lewis structure, over there exists lone pair once all the valence electrons around the atom room not paired.

Similar is a situation of the oxygen atom in the H2O molecule, where 2 lone pairs exist.

These lone pairs distort the bond angle due to the lone pair-lone pair, which is an ext than the link pair-bond pair and also lone pair-bond pair repulsion.

When the lone pair increases, the bond edge decreases. As there space two lone pairs on the oxygen atom, the reduces the bond angle to 104.5°.

Hybridization that H2O molecule

The bond in between each oxygen and also hydrogen atom in a water molecule is sigma (σ) with no pi (π) bonds.

As us know, sigma (σ) bonds room the strongest covalent bonds. Together a result, there is high stability in between the oxygen and also the hydrogen atom.

It is the two lone bag on the oxygen atom which provides all the difference. The hybridization the a water (H2O) molecule is sp3, wherein its oxygen has been hybridized.

According to the diagram, it have the right to be analyzed that the single oxygen atom in the water (H2O) molecule has actually one 2s orbital and also three 2p orbitals. These 4 altogether leads to the development of 4 sp3 hybridized orbitals.

It leads to the formation of the tetrahedral bent geometry, where in its entirety H2O molecule mirrors 25% characteristics of s and 75% features of the p orbital.

It can more be explained with the assist of a molecular orbit diagram that the H2O molecule.


The 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals the the oxygen atom creates four brand-new hybrid orbitals which additional bonds by undergoing overlapping through the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atoms.

Molecular orbital diagram of water (H2O)


The molecular orbital diagram is a photographic representation the determining chemistry bonding in between the molecules of a compound.

Furthermore, the molecular orbital diagram helps v determining how two sigma bonds have actually been formed and also the effect of the lone pairs on the structure.

From the over diagram, it deserve to be watched that the six valence electrons space bonding through the 1s orbit electrons that the hydrogen atom.

The mixing and overlapping space occurring among the atom orbital of comparable energy.

It is ensuing in such a manner that the bonding electrons in lower power are forming antibonding molecule orbitals of greater energy.

The left oxygen electrons perform not overlap further due to the scarcity that electrons.

The oxygen atom has its electronegativity greater than hydrogen. Due to this, oxygen has actually a greater negative charge, whereas hydrogen has actually a confident charge. It provides oxygen attract adjacent electrons and kind a bond ultimately.

On the various other hand, the hydrogen does no react with surrounding molecules as it has already fulfilled that is orbital and bonded v oxygen v a sigma bond, i beg your pardon is not basic to break.

It leads to the formation of polarity in an H2O molecule, regardless of whether of having a network neutral charge.

You can likewise check an interesting short article written about the polarity in water.


The Lewis framework of the triatomic H2O molecule mirrors two solitary sigma bonds in between the oxygen atom and also the hydrogen atoms. Moreover, these bonds leave 2 lone pairs of electron on the oxygen atom that mainly contributes come the tetrahedral bending geometrical framework of the H2O molecule.

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It is the reason why the shortcut angle the should have been 109.5° is 104.5°. The hybridization the the H2O molecule is sp3 since it has one s orbital and also three ns orbitals mix to form four hybrid orbitals.