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Oxygen"s crucial role in burning make it crucial for smelting steel and in oxy acetylene welding.

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Oxygen

Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Radius: 152 pm (Van der Waals)
Atomic Symbol: O Melting Point: -218.79 °C
Atomic Weight: 16.00 Boiling Point: -182.96 °C
Electron Configuration: 2s22p4 Oxidation States: 2, 1, −1, −2

History

From the Greek native oxys, acid, and genes, forming. The habits of oxygen and also nitrogen as contents of air resulted in the advancement of the phlogiston theory of combustion, which caught the minds of chemists because that a century.

Joseph priestley is generally credited with the discovery, although Scheele likewise discovered that independently.

Its atomic load was offered as a traditional of comparison for each of the other elements until 1961 once the international Union of Pure and also Applied Chemistry adopted carbon 12 together the brand-new basis.

Sources

Oxygen is the 3rd most abundant aspect found in the sun, and also it dram a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle, the process once thought to give the sun and also stars their energy. Oxygen under excited conditions is responsible because that the glowing red and yellow-green colour of the Aurora Borealis.

A gaseous element, oxygen develops 21% of the environment by volume and is derived by liquefaction and fractional distillation. The environment of Mars contains about 0.15% oxygen. The element and its compounds consist of 49.2%, through weight, the the earth"s crust. About two thirds the the human body and nine tenths of water is oxygen.

In the activities it can be ready by the electrolysis the water or by heater potassium chlorate through manganese dioxide as a catalyst.

Properties

The gas is colorless, odorless, and also tasteless. The liquid and solid develops are a pale blue color and also are strong paramagnetic.

Forms

Ozone (O3), a highly active compound, is formed by the activity of an electrical discharge or ultraviolet irradiate on oxygen.

Ozone"s visibility in the environment (amounting to the identical of a layer 3 mm thick under ordinary pressures and temperatures) helps avoid harmful ultraviolet beam of the sun from reaching the earth"s surface. Pollutants in the atmosphere may have a detrimental impact on this ozone layer. Ozone is toxic and also exposure should not exceed 0.2 mg/m# (8-hour time-weighted typical - 40-hour work-related week). Undiluted ozone has actually a bluish color. Liquid ozone is bluish black and solid ozone is violet-black.

Compounds

Oxygen, i m sorry is really reactive, is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds and also combines with many elements.

Uses

Plants and animals depend on oxygen for respiration. Hospitals commonly prescribe oxygen for patients with respiratory ailments.

Isotopes

Oxygen has actually nine isotopes. Herbal oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes.

Natural occurring oxygen-18 is steady and accessible commercially, as is water (H2O v 15% 18O). Advertisement oxygen usage in the U.S. Is approximated at 20 million brief tons every year and also the demand is meant to boost substantially.

Oxygen enrichment of stole blast heaters accounts because that the best use that the gas. Large quantities are also used in making synthetic gas because that ammonia and methanol, ethylene oxide, and also for oxy-acetylene welding.

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Air separation plants produce about 99% the the gas, when electrolysis tree produce around 1%.