Most atoms carry out not have actually eight electron in your valence electron shell. Some atoms have only a few electrons in their outer shell, while part atoms absence only one or two electrons to have actually an octet. In instances where an atom has actually three or under valence electrons, the atom may shed those valence electrons quite conveniently until what remains is a lower shell that contains an octet. Atoms that lose electrons acquire a hopeful charge together a resultbecause they space left with fewer negatively charged electrons come balance the hopeful charges that the protons in the nucleus. Positively charged ion are called cations. Many metals come to be cations as soon as they do ionic compounds.

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Cations

A neutral sodium atom is likely to attain an octet in its outermost covering by shedding its one valence electron.

The cation developed in this way, Na+, is called the salt ion to identify it indigenous the element. The outermost covering of the salt ion is the second electron shell, which has actually eight electron in it. The octet preeminence has been satisfied. Number (PageIndex1) is a graphical relenten of this process.

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api/deki/files/114134/3.2B.jpg?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex2): The development of a Chlorine Ion. On the left, the chlorine atom has actually 17 electrons. On the right, the chloride ion has actually 18 electrons and has a 1− charge.

The names for positive and an adverse ions room pronounced CAT-eye-ons and also ANN-eye-ons, respectively.

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In many cases, elements that belong come the same group (vertical column) ~ above the regular table type ions with the very same charge since they have the same number of valence electrons. Thus, the periodic table i do not care a tool for psychic the fees on numerous ions. Because that example, all ion made from alkali metals, the an initial column on the periodic table, have actually a 1+ charge. Ions made native alkaline planet metals, the 2nd group top top the periodic table, have actually a 2+ charge. ~ above the other side the the periodic table, the next-to-last column, the halogens, type ions having a 1− charge. Figure (PageIndex3) shows how the fee on many ions have the right to be guess by the place of an element on the routine table. Note the convention of an initial writing the number and then the sign on a ion v multiple charges. The barium cation is created Ba2+, not Ba+2.