Information because that Teachers

Safety Instructions

Although the E. Coli strain used in this experiments has been rendered non-pathogenic, it is vital to teach the students an excellent sterile technique and for sure disposal of bacteria.

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Gloves and also safety glasses room to it is in worn at every times throughout this experiment. Keep nose and also mouth far from tip finish when pipetting suspension culture to stop inhaling any type of aerosol that can be created. Use a 10% bleach systems to wipe down the benches at the end of the experiment. To wash hands before leaving lab.

To dispose the contaminated material:

Immerse every disposable pipets, tubes, and loops that have actually come in call with bacteria in 10% bleach systems for at the very least 20 minutes before draining, rinsing and disposing the in the trash.

When rap is complete, collect all petri dishes, open, and also immerse in a 10% bleach systems to death all bacteria. Permit materials to stand in bleach solution for 20 minutes or more. Drainpipe excess solution, seal products in a plastic bag and dispose in the trash.


Transformation of cell is a commonly used and also versatile tool in genetic engineering and also is of vital importance in the development of molecular biology. The function of this method is to introduce a international plasmid right into bacteria, the bacteria then amplifies the plasmid, making large quantities the it.

A plasmid is a tiny circular item of DNA (about 2,000 to 10,000 base pairs) that contains important hereditary information for the expansion of bacteria. Bacteria, i beg your pardon often grow in the same setting as molds and also fungi, progressed to make proteins that inactivate the toxins developed by these various other organisms. The bacteria re-publishing this critical information by pass it amongst themselves in the type of gene in plasmids. Hence, the natural function of a plasmid is to transfer hereditary information vital to the survive of the bacteria. It is this characteristic of plasmids that is exploited for use in transformation.

For bacteria to take it in a plasmid, lock must very first be made "competent" to take up DNA, which won"t normally pass through a bacterial cell"s membrane. This is excellent by creating small holes in the bacterial cells by suspending lock in a solution with a high concentration that calcium. DNA deserve to then be forced into the cell by the measures followed throughout this experiment.

In this activity, student will use a stress, overload of E. Coli that has actually been made knowledgeable to permit it come incorporate and express a plasmid containing two genes. One gene codes for a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the other codes for ampicillin resistance. The resource of the GFP gene is the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The ampicillin-resistance gene permits us to choose which of the E. Coli cells have actually been transformed based upon their capacity to grow in an atmosphere that contains the antibiotic ampicillin.


Figure 01 - Click to Enlarge


Understand recombinant DNA techniques, in certain the transformation procedure utilizing the warm shock method. Understand the provides of marker or reporter gene in molecule biology experiments and also how to screen for a gene that interest. Know that DNA deserve to be moved to one more organism and also therefore change the observable qualities of the organism. End up being familiar through sterile method and decontamination measures that are offered to manage bacteria. Learn how to calculate revolution efficiency.


For each lab group Disposable gloves security goggles 2 microtubes Microtube rack 6 disposable pipets 6 disposable inoculating loops bacter waste container Foam cup with crushed ice cream 2 plates through LB medium# 2 plates through LB tool + ampicillin# Waterproof mite Microtube filled with 50 mM CaCl2 Microtube filled v Luria-Bertani broth Common materials Squirt bottles containing 10% bleach 20-µl micropipette and also tips because that instructor use only Water bath (with floating tube racks) Plates v E.coli cells streaked out and also grown overnight pGREEN plasmid (0.005 µg/µl)+ Crushed ice Distilled water 37°C incubator Parafilm UV light Container with 10% bleach for sterilization of all items the come into contact with the bacteria girlfriend will require a big container through 10% bleach systems to save all supplied disposable pipets and also loops and also to sterilize the petri bowl
#LB and also LB/Amp Plates: these plates save the bacter nutrient medium, Luria-Bertani, which has actually been solidified through agar. LB/Amp plates have actually the antibiotic ampicillin added. Store these key in frozen refrigerator until prepared for use. If you choose to make your very own plates, the directions because that 500 ml the LB agar for 20-30 plates are as follows:Measure 500 ml that LB broth right into glass beaker or flask, add 7.5 g (1.5 g per 100 ml of broth or 1.5%) agar. Boil the solution on a warm plate or in the microwave (two 40-second intervals with agitation between). Use a hot pad! permit to cool slightly for a couple of minutes yet do not allow it to begin to solidify. Pour approximately 20 ml (or a depth of about 3 mm) into each the 12-15 petri dishes utilizing sterile method (i.e. Organize lids at an edge just above the bowl while pouring to protect them indigenous airborne particles, cover immediately) and permit to cool because that at least 15 minutes. To the staying solution, add 1 ml of ampicillin (10 mg/ml) per 100 ml the solution and also then pour the other 12-15 plates as above. Make certain that you label plates appropriately. This plates deserve to be retained in the frozen refrigerator for as much as 2 months.


Note: The pGREEN plasmid includes a mutant version of GFP linked to another gene dubbed beta-galactosidase. This combination of gene was chosen since the protein developed from this combination turns bacteria yellow-green, also in regular light. If you disclose the colonies to a UV light, they also fluoresce. The plasmid likewise contains the antibiotic resistance gene to permit growth in the visibility of ampicillin.

The plasmid DNA must be retained in the refrigerator until it is aliquotted because that students. As soon as ready, have actually the student come as much as you one in ~ a time and dispense the plasmid DNA directly into the pipe they have labeled through a + to suggest that these tubes have the plasmid added.

Advance preparation

Day 1: monitor directions ~ above the E.coli vials to make plates 24 hours prior come lab. Aliquot microtubes with just over 1 ml that 50 mM CaCl2 to each be shared by two lab groups. Do a 10% bleach solution to fill squirt bottles and also the huge disposal container. Acquire enough crushed ice to fill foam cup or beakers for each lab group. Fill water bath through distilled water and also warm come 42°C. Eliminate pGREEN plasmid DNA from freezer just prior to class begins. Remove LB and LB/Amp plates from refrigerator and let heat to room temperature. Pre-heat incubator to 37°C. Aliquot one microtube through 1.5 ml that Luria broth because that each 2 lab groups. Have obtainable enough squirt bottles v 10% bleach for every group to access.

Day 1 & 2: Prepare a big container through 10% bleach systems for students to location their provided pipettes and also loops in and also to sterilize their agar bowl when change results have actually been analyzed.

Post lab Cleanup

When every one of your classes have actually finished making use of the streak petri plates, open up the dishes and immerse in bleach systems for at least 20 minutes. Adhering to sterilization, to water off liquid, placed dishes in plastic bag, and throw away in constant trash.

Dispose of revolution petri bowl from job 2 in the exact same manner.

Teacher Notes

Information for Teacher Use and also disposal the E. Coli:

Refer to the instructions i beg your pardon are noted with the E.coli vials.

E.coli is not considered pathogenic due to the fact that it is a normal part of the bacter flora of the human being gut and is rarely associated with any type of illness in healthy and balanced individuals. As formerly noted, the E. Coli strain provided in this experiment has been rendered non-pathogenic. However, the is very important to monitor the guidelines listed below for taking care of of the bacteria and also disposal that waste to ensure that the E.coli is provided in a safe manner.

Do no touch your face when taking care of plates or tubes with E. Coli on them till you have washed your hands thoroughly. Perform not put your challenge near the cultures or the tips once pipetting cultures. Perform not incubate key for much more than the offered time due to the fact that this will allow contaminating bacteria and also fungi come arise. Follow every directions because that post-lab clean-up. Making use of gloves, collect all petri dishes, disposable pipets and also tubes and also immerse in a 10% bleach systems for 20 minutes or an ext to kill all bacteria. Drainpipe excess solution, place materials in plastic bag and also dispose in the continual garbage. Do NOT drip bleach on your clothes as it will permanently stain them. Wipe under lab bench through bleach equipment at the end of lab. Wash hands thoroughly prior to leaving lab.

Student Activity: change of the bacter E. Coli making use of a gene for green fluorescent protein


Background Reading

In molecule biology, transformation refers come a kind of genetic exchange in i m sorry the hereditary material lugged by an individual cabinet is altered by organization of foreign (exogenous) DNA. This international DNA might be derived from unrelated types and even other kingdoms, such as bacteria, fungi, tree or animals, which would certainly otherwise it is in inaccessible come an organism.

Bacteria and yeast have actually been revolutionized with human being genes to produce proteins that are helpful in treating person diseases and disorders e.g. The production of insulin. Some bacteria have actually been modified such that they room able come digest oil from inadvertently spills. Bacteria room single-celled organisms that can quickly pass information between one another and thus alters in hereditary make-up are swiftly passed ~ above to subsequent generations.

Transformation is typically more an overwhelming with multicellular organisms, such together plants, in which that is crucial to either alter many cells through the new piece of DNA or to transform just a single cell and also then induce it to produce a whole brand-new plant.

Genetic revolution of plants and other organisms does occur naturally. Bacteria and also viruses have the right to move DNA (or RNA) into an organism and cause extensive changes. Instances are Agrobacterium tumefaciens (for plants) and HIV (for Humans).

The bacterium you will certainly be transforming, E.coli, lives in the human gut and also is a relatively simple and also well interpreted organism. Its hereditary material is composed mostly of one large circle of DNA 4-5 million basic pairs (mbp) in length, with small loops the DNA dubbed plasmids, usually varying from 5,000-10,000 base pairs in length, existing in the cytoplasm. It is these plasmids that bacteria deserve to transfer back and forth, permitting them come share genes amongst one another and also thus to naturally adapt to new environments.

The capacity of bacteria to preserve these plasmids and also replicate them throughout normal cell multiplication is the basis of cabinet transformation. The plasmids are offered as “gene taxis” in transformation events to lug DNA that interest right into the cell whereby it can combine into the genome or stay as a plasmid in ~ a bacterium and also be translated into proteins no normally uncovered in the organism.

In this experiment, environment-friendly fluorescent protein (GFP) indigenous the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has been integrated into a plasmid in addition to a gene because that resistance come the antibiotic ampicillin. The GFP is actually located in discrete spots approximately the bell margin of the jellyfish and will fluoresce under certain conditions When put into a plasmid and used for the transformation procedure, the changed bacteria will certainly express their newly obtained jellyfish gene and also produce the fluorescent protein, which reasons them to glow eco-friendly under ultraviolet light. The mutant form of GFP supplied in pGREEN makes the bacteria a yellow-green color even in white light.

This plasmid has an ampicillin-resistance gene in addition to the GFP gene. Ampicillin is one antibiotic and works by staying clear of E.coli from building cell walls, thereby killing the bacteria. When the ampicillin-resistance gene is present, it directs the production of an enzyme the blocks the activity of the ampicillin, and the bacteria are able come survive. Bacteria without the plasmid and, hence, the resistance gene room unable to flourish on a key containing ampicillin in the medium, and also only the transformants will certainly survive.



GFP is additionally used in research as a reporter molecule. It have the right to be connected to the protein that you space interested in studying, and this protein can then be complied with through transforms in expression the the linked GFP.


Understand recombinant techniques and the revolution procedure utilizing the warm shock method. Understand just how we can screen for a gene that interest and also the prestige of mite or reporter genes in molecular biology experiments. Investigate how DNA have the right to be moved to an additional organism and the readjust in phenotype (physical characteristics) that may result from such a transfer. Find out the prestige of the sterile approaches that are provided to handle bacteria, and also the decontamination essential when the experiment is complete.Learn how to calculate revolution efficiency.


For each lab group Gloves safety goggles if preferred Waterproof marker Microtube rack 6 disposable pipettes 6 disposable inoculating loops Foam cup with crushed ice 2 LB key 2 LB + Amp key Groups will certainly share Squirt party containing 10% bleach Microtube filled v 50 mM CaCl2(keep top top ice) Microtube filled through Luria broth Common materials 20-µl micropipette for instructor usage Water bathtub (with floating tube racks) Streak bowl of E.coli pGREEN plasmid (0.005 µg/µl) Crushed ice cream Distilled water 37°C incubator Parafilm big container with 10% bleach




Review the safety and security instructions v your teacher come ensure the you know exactly how to handle the cultures and also equipment safely. At the perfect of the lab, dispose of all materials by soaking in 10% bleach solution and then draining and also placing in the trash. Clean the laboratory benches v the bleach solution and remember to wash your hands before leaving the lab.


Day 1:

Make certain that girlfriend have all of your group"s materials, the you understand which other team you will certainly be sharing with, and where the bleach containers are situated for clean-up at the end. Put on gloves and safety goggles. You have actually two sterile microtubes: mark one “+”and the other “-”. Compose your lab group’s name or initials on each tube. Utilizing a disposable pipette, include 250 µl the 50mM CaCl2 solution to each pipe (“+” and also “-”) and also immediately ar them both ~ above ice.


Use a sterile plastic loop to carry one or 2 3-mm bacterial nests or an tantamount amount of smaller nests from the streak plate come the “+” tube. Execute not choose up any agar as it might inhibit the change process. Immerse the loop tip right into the calcium chloride equipment in the “+” tube and also vigorously turn the loop come dislodge the cabinet mass and also disperse the entire mass right into the calcium chloride solution. Exposure that the cells to cold calcium chloride solution, in mix with the "heat shock" discussed in step 12 below, causes the cell membrane to end up being porous and thus the cells are made "competent" for transformation. Note: No visible clumps of cells should remain. This action is an important to obtaining great results.
Place the loop right into the bacterial waste container to kill the bacteria that remain on it. Near the pipe lid and put the tube on ice. Follow actions 5 come 8 and use a new sterile loop to deliver a fixed of cell to the“-” tube. Both tubes have to now it is in on ice. Using a sterile inoculating loop choose up one loopful (10 µl) the pGREEN and add directly right into the CaCl2 in your “+” tube. Your teacher might do this because that you. Following the enhancement of the plasmid, near the pipe lid and also tap gently v your finger to mix. Try not to splash the suspension increase the sides of the tube. Insanity the basic of the pipe gently ~ above the desktop to make all of the liquid relocate to the bottom of the tube. Return the “+” pipe to the ice. Execute NOT add the plasmid to your "-" tube. Incubate both tubes on ice cream for 15 minutes. While the cells are incubating, her teacher will pass a UV lamp over the pGREEN DNA solution. Note your monitorings on the student task sheet and complete concerns 1-3.Following incubation, "heat shock" the cells. It is essential that the cells receive a sharp and also distinct shock.a. lug the ice container with the tubes to the 42°C water bath.b. eliminate both tubes native ice and also immediately organize them in the water because that 90 seconds. Three-fourths of the tube should be under water.c.

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After warm shock, instantly return the tubes come ice. Allow them remain on ice for at the very least one minute.

Stop Point: The tubes can be refrigerated overnight and also removed just prior come the beginning of the following lab. If you will certainly not complete the rap today, offer the tubes to her teacher because that overnight storage. Clean up: place used loops and so on in the bacter waste container. Spray workspace through bleach solution and also wipe with file towels. To wash hands before leaving lab.

Use a disposable pipette to include 250 µl that Luria broth come both the "+" and also "-" tubes. Make sure that you add to the "-" tube very first so regarding avoid cross-contamination of the plasmid. Discard this pipette right into the bacterial waste. Close lids, and gently insanity tubes come mix. Place in a rack and incubate for 10 minute at room temperature. Label the BOTTOM of your media plates while the tubes are incubating. Make certain to also include your lab group name and the date. Label 1 LB plate and 1 LB/Amp key “+PLASMID” and label 1 LB plate and also 1 LB/Amp bowl “-PLASMIDUse a disposable pipette to add 100 µl of cell suspension native the “- tube” to the “LB - PLASMID” plate, and also another 100 µl to the “LB/Amp - PLASMID” plate. Discard the pipette and “- tube” right into the bacterial waste container. Using a new sterile loop for each plate, spread out the suspensions evenly roughly the surface ar of the agar by conveniently skating the level surface the a new sterile loop ago and forth throughout the plate surface. Rotate the bowl a 4 minutes 1 turn and go back and soon several more times. Use a new sterile pipette to transport 100 µl of cell suspension from the "+" pipe to each suitable plate and spread together above.