Chapter 17 ar 1

The Scientific change Sparks the Enlightenment

(Audio)The Scientific change of the 1500s and 1600s had transformed the means people in Europe looked in ~ the world. In the 1700s, other scientists increased European knowledge.

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Scientific successes convinced educated europeans of the power of human reason. Organic law, or rules discoverable through reason, govern scientific forces such together gravity and also magnetism. Why not, then, use natural law to better understand social, economic, and also political problems? using the approaches of the new science, reversal thus collection out come study human behavior and solve the difficulties of society. In this way, the Scientific transformation led to another transformation in thinking, well-known as the Enlightenment

Hobbes and also Locke have actually Conflicting Views

Thomas Hobbes and also John Locke, two seventeenth-century English thinkers, set forth ideas that to be to become vital to the Enlightenment. Both guys lived with the turmoils of the English civil War. However they came to very different conclusions about human nature and also the function of government.


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Thomas Hobbes


Hobbes believes in an effective Government

Thomas Hobbes outlined his ideas in a work-related titled Leviathan. In it, he suggested that civilization were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. If not strictly controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress one another. Life in the “state the nature”—without laws or various other control—would it is in “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”

To escape the “brutish” life, stated Hobbes, human being entered right into a society contract, one agreement by which they provided up their flexibility for an arranged society. Hobbes thought that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. Because that him, such a federal government was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and compel obedience.

Locke Advocates herbal Rights

John Locke had a much more optimistic view of person nature. That thought civilization were usually reasonable and also moral. Further, castle had specific natural rights, or civil liberties that belonged to all human beings from birth. These had the best to life, liberty, and property.


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John Locke


In two Treatises the Government, Locke argued that people formed governments to safeguard their organic rights. The finest kind the government, that said, had restricted power and also was welcomed by all citizens. Thus, unlike Hobbes, Locke rejected absolute monarchy. England throughout this time knowledgeable a shift in political power known as the Glorious Revolution. James II, one unpopular absolute monarch, left the throne and also fled England in 1688. Locke later on wrote that he assumed James II deserved to it is in dethroned for violating the rights of the English.
Locke propose a radical idea about this time. A government, the said, has actually an obligation to the people it governs. If a government stops working its obligations or violates people’s organic rights, the people have the best to overthrow that government. Locke’s idea would one day influence leaders that the American Revolution, such as Benjamin Franklin, thomas Jefferson, and also James Madison. Locke’s idea that the best of transformation would likewise echo throughout Europe and also Latin America in the centuries that followed.

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Montesquieu breakthroughs the Idea that Separation of Powers

An early and also influential thinker to be Baron de Montesquieu (mahn tus kyoo). Montesquieu learned the federal governments of Europe, native Italy to England. The read around ancient and also medieval Europe, and learned around Chinese and also Native American cultures. His spicy criticism of absolute monarchy would open up doors for later debate.