• Origins • Characteristics: Genres and also Subject issue • Realist artist • well known 19th-Century Realist paintings • history of Realism in the 20th-Century • Verismo (1890s/1900s) • Ashcan college (c.1908-1913) • Precisionism (1920s) • society Realism (1920s/1930s) • Socialist Realism (c.1925-35) • Surrealism (1920s/1930s) • Magic Realism • American scene Painting and also Midwest Regionalism (1925-45) • Euston roadway School • Holocaust art • Beaux art Quartet (1952-5) • American contemporary Realism (1960s/Early 1970s) • Photorealism (1960s come 1970s) • Hyperrealism • Poster arts Realism • cynical Realism (China) (1990s)

The pistol Clinic (1875) By thomas Eakins.

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From 1400 to 1800, Western arts was overcame by Renaissance-inspired academic theories that idealized painting and high art executed in the cool Manner. Thereafter, resulted in partly by the vast social changes triggered by the commercial Revolution, there to be a greater emphasis on realism of topic - that is, subject matter external the high art tradition. The hatchet Realism was advocated by the French novelist Champfleury during the 1840s, return it started in earnest in 1855, with an Exposition by the French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-77), after among his paintings (The Artist"s Studio) had been rubbish by the world Fair in Paris. Courbet collection up his very own marquee surrounding and issued a manifesto to accompany his an individual exhibition. It was entitled "Le Realisme".

EVOLUTION of VISUAL arts For the chronology and dates of key events in the evolution of intuitive arts approximately the civilization see: background of art Timeline.

FINEST modern-day PAINTING for a perform of an excellent works see: Greatest contemporary Paintings.


Characteristics: Genres and Subject Matter

The layout of Realist painting spread to nearly all genres, including history painting, portraits, genre-painting, and landscapes. For example, landscape artist went out to the provinces trying to find the "real" France, setting up artistic colonies in locations like Barbizon, and also later in ~ Grez-Sur-Loing, Pont-Aven, and Concarneau. (But note the difference between naturalism and also realism.)

Favourite subject matter for Realist artists included: genre scene of rural and also urban working class life, scenes of street-life, cafes and night clubs, and increasing frankness in the therapy of the body, nudity and also sensual subjects. Not surprisingly, this gritty strategy shocked numerous of the upper and also middle course patrons the the arts, both in France and also in the Victorian arts of England, where Realism to be never totally embraced.

A basic trend, and a specific style that art, Realism heralded a general move far from the "ideal" (as typified by the art of classic mythology, so beloved by Renaissance artists and sculptors) in the direction of the ordinary. Thus, in their figure drawing and figure painting, Realists shown real civilization not idealized types. From now on, artist felt increasingly complimentary to depict real-life instances stripped the aesthetics and also universal truths. (No an ext cute-looking boy beggars, it s as beautiful as picture streets and views, healthy-looking contented peasants and also so on.) In this sense, Realism reflect a progressive and highly influential transition in the definition and duty of arts in general, including literature and also fine art. It affected Impressionism - see, because that instance, Realism come Impressionism (1830-1900) - and several other modern art styles, such as Pop-Art. The format retains its affect on the intuitive arts to this day.

NOTE: because that other vital historical stylistic trends like Realism, check out Art Movements and also Schools (from around 100 BCE).

Realist Artists

Realist artists, strongly connected with the 19th century movement include: Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75), Gustave Courbet (1819-77), Honore Daumier (1808-79). However, many much more were influenced by Realism without permitting it to overcome their work. An interesting instance is the Russian artist Ilya Repin (1844-1930), who developed outstanding realist layout works such together Bargemen ~ above the Volga (1870), and Krestny Khod (Religious Procession) in Kursk Gubernia (1883). One more example is Jules Bastien-Lepage (1848-84), who naturalism was a strong influence top top the conservative strand the Impressionist painting.

The realist layout was taken increase and adjusted by French Impressionists like Edgar Degas (for example, in his photo The Absinthe Drinker): for more, check out Realism come Impressionism (1830-1900). The german Biedermeier format of Romantic realism - a comforting residential idiom famous in Germany, Austria and also Denmark, no unlike the seventeenth century netherlands Realism school - is disputed in German Art, 19th Century.

Famous 19th Century Realist Paintings

The main schools the Realism during the nineteenth century included: the English Figurative School, the French school (led by Gustave Courbet), the Russian school (led by Ilya Repin), the German institution (led through Adolph von Menzel), and the American college (led by cutting board Eakins). In addition, many artists produced paintings in the realist style, consisting of the Romantic Theodore Gericault (notably his asylum portraits), the Impressionist Edgar Degas (notably his ballet pictures)

David Wilkie (1785-1841) analysis the will (1820) Neue Pinakothek, Munich.

Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller (1793-1865) Old Elms in Prater (1831) Kunsthalle, Hamburg.

Carl Spitzweg (1808-1885) The Bookworm (1850) Museum Georg Schafer, Schweinfurt.

Adolph von Menzel (1815-1905) living Room v the Artist"s sister (1847) Bavarian State Collection, Munich. Flute Concert the Frederick the good at Sanssouci (1850) Berlin.

Honore Daumier (1808-79) The Laundress (c.1860), Musee d"orsay. The 3rd Class Carriage (1864), Walters arts Museum, Baltimore.

Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75) The Winower (1847-8) nationwide Gallery, London. The Sower (1850) Boston Museum of well Arts. The Gleaners (1857) Musee d"Orsay. The Angelus (1857-9) Musee d"Orsay. Guy with a Hoe (1862) J. Paul Getty Museum, LA.

Gustave Courbet (1819-77) The stone Breakers (1849), damaged in WWII. A funeral at Ornans (1849-50), Musee d"Orsay. The Artist"s Studio (1855), Musee d"Orsay.

Ivan Shishkin (1832-98) Oaks - Evening: A research (1887) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Vasily Perov (1833-82) Easter Procession in the nation (1861) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Hunters at rest (1871) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904) Portrait of rose oil von Bismarck (1895) Schleswig-Holstein Museum..

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Snap the Whip (1872) servant Institute of American Art, Youngstown, USA. Gulf stream (1899) city Museum that Art, new York City.

Ivan Kramskoy (1837-1887) Christ in the Wilderness (1872) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Mocking Christ: Hail, King of the Jews (1882) Russian Museum, St Petersburg.

Luke Fildes (1843-1927) The medical professional (1891) Tate Gallery, London.

Mihaly Munkacsy (1844-1900) Christ prior to Pilate (1881) Deri Museum, Debrecen, Hungary.

Wilhelm Leibl (1844-1900) Head of a Peasant Girl (1880) Osterreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna. 3 Women in Church (1881) Kunsthalle, Hamburg.

Konstantin Savitsky (1844-1905) Repairing the Railway (1874) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Ilya Repin (1844-1930) Barge Haulers ~ above the Volga (1873) Russian Museum, St. Petersburg. Krestny Khod (Religious Procession) Kursk Gubernia (1883) Tretyakov. Because that more, see: Russian painting 19th Century.

Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) Max Schmitt in a single Scull (1871) metropolitan Museum that Art, NY. The gun Clinic (1875) university of Pennsylvania.

Christian Krohg (1852-1925) sick Girl (1881) Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo.

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) Portrait of madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau) (1884) urban Museum.

Max Klinger (1857-1920) The judgment of Paris (1885) Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The fatality of Caesar (c.1890) Museum of well Arts, Leipzig.

Isaac Levitan (1860-1900) secluded Monastery (1890) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. The road to Vladimirka (1892) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Frederic Remington (1861-1909) The fall of the Cowboy (1895) Amon Carter Museum, fort Worth.

Abram Arkhipov (1862-1930) The Washer-Women (Laundresses) (1899) Russian Museum, St Petersburg. Labourers at the stole Foundry (1896) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Joaquin Sorolla Y Bastida (1863-1923) Sad Inheritance (1899) Caja de Ahorros de Valencia.

Realism in the 20th-Century

With 2 horrific people wars, a worldwide depression, the holocaust, the Vietnam War and the illustration of atom weapons, twenty century realist artists had no shortage that subjects. Indeed, contemporary realism appeared in a wide selection of forms. Here is a short introduction to a selection of realist schools and themes in fine arts painting and also sculpture.

Verismo (1890s/1900s)

This Italian ax implies extreme raw realism, without any interpretation. The word very first appeared in the violent melodramatic operas the Mascagnie, such together Cavalleria Rusticana (1890), and also was taken increase by Italian artists favor Telemaco Signorini (1835-1901).

Ashcan School (c.1908-1913)

The Ashcan college was a tiny group the painters who strove come chronicle day-to-day life in brand-new York City during the pre-war period, producing realistic and also unvarnished pictures and also etchings of metropolitan streetscapes and also genre scenes. Led by Robert Henri (1865-1929), that was influenced by the strong unglamorous realism of thomas Eakins and Thomas Anshutz, the Ashcan school consisted of other painters favor Everett Shinn (1876-1953), George Luks (1866-1933), George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925), wilhelm Glackens (1870-1938) and John Sloan (1871-1951). The tradition of the Ashcan School sustained in the American social Realism scene paint of the 1920s and 1930s, many thanks to Edward Hopper (1882-1967): see, in particular, his home by the rail (1925, MOMA) and also Lighthouse at two Lights (1929, metropolitan Museum).

Precisionism (1920s)

An American painting movement which portrayed urban/industrial landscapes often in a Cubist/Futurist manner, its members were known by a range of labels such as "Cubist-Realists", "Immaculates", "Sterilists" or "modern classicists". The format was additionally known as "sharp-focus realism." The best known exponents of Precisionism to be Charles Sheeler (1883-1965), Charles Demuth (1883-1935), and also Georgia O"Keeffe (1887-1986).

Social Realism (1920s/1930s)

The term society Realists describes the urban American scene artists who worked during the Depression era. Society Realism is a naturalistic format of realism which focuses exclusively on society issues and everyday hardships. Best known members of the social Realism school incorporate Ben Shahn (1898-1969), Jack Levine and also Jacob Lawrence. All were considerably influenced by the earlier Ashcan school of brand-new York city.

Socialist Realism (c.1925-35)

A form of public propaganda art instituted through Joseph Stalin throughout the duration of compelled industrialization in Soviet Russia, which began in the late 1920s. A significant heroic style of art, Socialist Realism glorified the new Soviet Man and also Worker in substantial murals, posters, and other develops of publicly art, making use of bold reds and also blacks and also evocative imagery. Maxim Gorky was lured ago to Russia as an artistic front because that the movement. Needless come say, this propagandist art bore tiny resemblance to fact on the streets and also in the factories. Socialist Realism was the very first in a series of communist proletarian formats of art, which ultimately came under the manage of the Soviet art supremo Andrei Zhadanov. Socialist Realism to be taken increase in Spain and also France by artists like Renato Guttuso (eg. Sulphur Miners, 1949) and Andre Fougeron (Martyred Spain, 1937).

Surrealism (1920s/1930s)

A bizarre art-form, Surrealism was started in Paris in 1924 adhering to the publishing of Andre Breton"s manifesto. Based upon the psychoanalytical ideas of Sigmund Freud, Surrealism sought to release the an innovative potential of the unconscious mind. Two broad varieties of Surrealist arts emerged. The fantasy-like paintings of Salvador Dali (1904-89) Rene Magritte (1898-1967), and the automatism that Joan Miro (1893-1983). Despite its bizarre style and also a fairly short span, Surrealism confirmed immensely durable as one influence, and continues come this day. Famous Surrealist paintings include Dali"s The Persistence of storage (1931) and The disintegration of the Persistence of memory (1954).

Magic Realism

A parallel art movement to Surrealism was Magic Realism, whose paintings are anchored in everyday reality, however with overtones the fantasy. The name was coined by the German arts historian and also critic Franz Roh in 1925, in a publication entitled Nach Expressionismus: Magischer Realismus. Magic Realism was component of the return to Order - a reaction against avant-garde arts which occurred after human being War I. Members of the school consisted of (in Italy) Giorgio de Chirico (eg. The Painter"s Family, 1926), and Alberto Savinio, and also (in Germany) Alexander Kanoldt and also Adolf Ziegler. The surname is also sometimes used to specific American artist of the post-WWII period, such together Paul Cadmus (1904-1999), Philip Evergood (1901-1973) and Ivan Albright (1897-1983). In Germany, Magic Realism overlaps through the activity Die Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity).

American step Painting and also Midwest Regionalism (1925-45)

American scene Painting taken on several different strands that realism, all of which employed especially American imagery. The midwest version of American Scene paint was recognized as Regionalism, which was exemplified by painters together as approve Wood (1892-1942), john Steuart Curry (1897-1946), thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975), and also later Andrew wyeth (1917-2009). Note likewise the prevalent popularity that the an excellent realist illustrator Norman Rockwell (1894-1978).

Euston road School

Formed in 1938, this was a left-wing contemporary realist team of artists who taught in ~ or graduated from the college of Painting and also Drawing in Euston Road, London. Rebelling against avant-garde art, they proclaimed the prominence of portraying classic subjects in a realist manner, so regarding make art an ext understandable and socially relevant. Members the the school consisted of Graham Bell, wilhelm Coldstream, Lawrence Gowing, Rodrigo Moynihan, Victor Pasmore and also Claude Rogers.

Holocaust Art

Holocaust art consists of three types. Nazi propaganda imagery offered to underpin your genocidal activities; photos (nearly all drawings) developed by victim that document individual experiences; and also post-war memorials of the Shoah (mostly sculpture).

Beaux art Quartet (1952-5)

During the 1950s, the previous Beaux Arts gallery in London (run by Helen Lessore) was an essential venue for modern realist painting. In 1952-4 it staged solo exhibitions for 4 young brother realist painters john Bratby, Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch and Jack Smith, known subsequently as the Beaux arts Quartet, and also from December 1954, were additionally renowned together the Kitchen Sink painters. The latter term was coined as a result of their mundane topic matter. Examples of their realism are: tho Life v Chip Fryer (1954) and also The restroom (1955) by man Bratby, Sheffield Weir II (1954) by Edward Middleditch, and also Figure in a Room i (1959) by Jack Smith.

American contemporary Realism (1960s/Early 1970s)

This term explains the reasonably straightforward realistic strategy to representation taken by artists in the post-abstract era. Well conscious of modern-day abstract ideas of art, contemporary realists however prefer to paint or sculpt in a more traditional manner. Among the famed painters associated with this approach to good art room William Bailey, Neil Welliver and also Philip Pearlstein. Keep in mind that contemporary Realism differs from Photorealism fan to the latter"s rather exaggerated and also ironic tone.

Photorealism (1960s come 1970s)

Photorealism arised in the so late 1960s, as soon as they started painting scene in a style nearly identical to photographs. Photorealist subjects are common banal and also without special interest, and may even be portrayed as lot to screen the virtuoso representational skills of the artist. Even so, Photorealism have the right to be especially visually striking. Essential members that the Photorealist motion are Richard Estes (b.1932) whose speciality is street scenes with elaborate home window reflections and Chuck close (b.1940) who specializes in big up-front, neck-up portraiture. Other photorealists additionally typically emphasis on one details subject. Man Doherty is one of Ireland"s ideal known photorealist artists.


Hyperrealism is a general term explicate the extreme type of reality painting and also sculpture which emerged in the early on 1970s. The is likewise referred to together Super-Realism, and in paint is associated with Photo-Realism. In sculpture famous photorealist artists encompass Duane Hanson (1925-96), man de Andrea (b.1941) and also Carole Feuerman (b.1945). Few of the recent job-related of Ron Mueck and Robert Gober could additionally be considered Hyper-Realist. Significant painters encompass Chuck Close, Robert Bechtle, Richard Estes, Audrey Flack, Ralph Goings.

Poster arts Realism

In some methods the heir come artists like Norman Rockwell (1894-1978), the populist Scottish artist Jack Vettriano (b.1951) has carved out a lucrative niche because that himself together a nostalgic subject-painter, selling large numbers the posters and also other decorate designs.

Cynical Realism (China) (1990s)

Cynical Realism is a satirical format of Chinese modern-day painting which appeared in the 1990s complying with the suppression of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. Pessimistic Realists borrowed imagery from miscellaneous traditions, consisting of Surrealism and Symbolism, and also classical figure painting.

• For other art movements and also periods, see: history of Art.

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• for 20th century artworks, see modern Art. • For layouts of painting and also sculpture, see: Homepage.