Identify the departments of the lower limb and describe the skeleton of every regionDescribe the bones and also bony landmarks that articulate at each joint the the lower limb

Like the upper limb, the lower limb is split into three regions. The thigh is that part of the reduced limb located in between the i know well joint and knee joint. The leg is especially the region between the knee joint and also the ankle joint. Distal to the fishing eye is the foot. The reduced limb has 30 bones. These room the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges (see ). The femur is the single bone the the thigh. The patella is the kneecap and also articulates with the distal femur. The tibia is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg, and also the fibula is the thin bone the the lateral leg. The skeleton of the foot are divided into 3 groups. The posterior portion of the foot is created by a team of 7 bones, every of i m sorry is well-known as a tarsal bone, conversely, the mid-foot consists of five elongated bones, every of which is a metatarsal bone. The toes contain 14 tiny bones, each of i m sorry is a phalanx bone the the foot.

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Femur

The femur, or thigh bone, is the solitary bone the the thigh region (). The is the longest and also strongest bone of the body, and accounts for about one-quarter of a person’s complete height. The rounded, proximal finish is the head of the femur, which articulates through the acetabulum that the i know good bone to kind the i know good joint. The fovea capitis is a young indentation ~ above the medial side of the femoral head the serves together the website of attachment because that the ligament of the head that the femur. This ligament spans the femur and also acetabulum, but is weak and provides tiny support for the i know good joint. That does, however, carry an essential artery that gives the head of the femur.


Femur and Patella
The femur is the solitary bone of the thigh region. It articulates superiorly with the i know good bone at the i know good joint, and also inferiorly through the tibia in ~ the knee joint. The patella just articulates with the distal end of the femur.

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Watch this video clip to view exactly how a fracture of the mid-femur is operation repaired. Just how are the two portions of the broken femur stabilized during surgical repair of a fractured femur?


Patella

The patella (kneecap) is largest sesamoid bone that the body (see ). A sesamoid bone is a bone the is integrated into the tendon of a muscle wherein that tendon the cross a joint. The sesamoid bone articulates with the underlying bones to prevent damage to the muscle tendon due to rubbing versus the bones throughout movements of the joint. The patella is found in the tendon that the quadriceps femoris muscle, the big muscle that the anterior thigh that passes throughout the anterior knee to affix to the tibia. The patella articulates with the patellar surface ar of the femur and thus prevents rubbing that the muscle tendon versus the distal femur. The patella also lifts the tendon far from the knee joint, which increases the leverage power of the quadriceps femoris muscle together it acts throughout the knee. The patella does not articulate v the tibia.




The cuboid bone articulates through the anterior finish of the calcaneus bone. The cuboid has actually a deep groove running throughout its inferior surface, which provides passage because that a muscle tendon. The talus bone articulates anteriorly through the navicular bone, which consequently articulates anteriorly through the three picture writing (“wedge-shaped”) bones. This bones room the medial cuneiform, the intermediary cuneiform, and the lateral cuneiform. Every of these bones has a wide superior surface and also a narrow inferior surface, i m sorry together create the transverse (medial-lateral) curvature of the foot. The navicular and lateral cuneiform bones additionally articulate with the medial side of the cuboid bone.


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View this connect to learn about a bunion, a localized swelling on the medial next of the foot, alongside the very first metatarsophalangeal joint, in ~ the base of the huge toe. What is a bunion and what type of shoes is most most likely to cause this to develop?


Arches the the Foot

When the foot come into contact with the ground throughout walking, running, or jumping activities, the impact of the body load puts a remarkable amount the pressure and force ~ above the foot. During running, the force applied to every foot as it contacts the ground have the right to be up to 2.5 times her body weight. The bones, joints, ligaments, and also muscles that the foot absorb this force, thus substantially reducing the amount of shock that is happen superiorly into the reduced limb and also body. The arcs of the foot play vital role in this shock-absorbing ability. As soon as weight is applied to the foot, these arcs will flatten somewhat, thus taking in energy. As soon as the load is removed, the arch rebounds, giving “spring” to the step. The arches likewise serve to distribute body weight side to side and to either finish of the foot.

The foot has a transverse arch, a medial longitudinal arch, and a lateral longitudinal arch (see ). The transverse arch creates the medial-lateral curvature that the mid-foot. It is developed by the wedge forms of the cuneiform bones and bases (proximal ends) the the first to 4th metatarsal bones. This arch helps to distribute body load from next to side within the foot, thus allowing the foot come accommodate uneven terrain.

The longitudinal arcs run down the length of the foot. The lateral longitudinal arch is fairly flat, vice versa, the medial longitudinal arch is bigger (taller). The longitudinal arcs are developed by the tarsal skeleton posteriorly and also the metatarsal skeleton anteriorly. These arcs are sustained at one of two people end, where they call the ground. Posteriorly, this support is provided by the calcaneus bone and also anteriorly by the heads (distal ends) of the metatarsal bones. The talus bone, i beg your pardon receives the weight of the body, is situated at the peak of the longitudinal arches. Body weight is climate conveyed native the talus to the soil by the anterior and posterior ends of these arches. Strong ligaments hold together the surrounding foot bones to protect against disruption that the arcs during load bearing. Top top the bottom of the foot, extr ligaments tie with each other the anterior and posterior ends of the arches. These ligaments have actually elasticity, which enables them come stretch somewhat during weight bearing, thus allowing the longitudinal arcs to spread. The stretching of this ligaments stores energy within the foot, fairly than pass these pressures into the leg. Convulsion of the foot muscles also plays an important role in this energy absorption. As soon as the load is removed, the elastic ligaments recoil and also pull the ends of the arcs closer together. This restore of the arches releases the stored energy and improves the energy performance of walking.

Stretching of the ligaments that support the longitudinal arches can result in pain. This can occur in overweight individuals, with human being who have jobs that involve standing for lengthy periods that time (such as a waitress), or walking or running lengthy distances. If stretching of the ligaments is prolonged, excessive, or repeated, that can result in a steady lengthening that the sustaining ligaments, with succeeding depression or collapse of the longitudinal arches, particularly on the medial next of the foot. This condition is referred to as pes planus (“flat foot” or “fallen arches”).


Chapter Review

The lower limb is separated into 3 regions. These are the thigh, located in between the hip and also knee joints; the leg, located between the knee and also ankle joints; and distal come the ankle, the foot. There are 30 skeletal in each reduced limb. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, seven tarsal bones, five metatarsal bones, and also 14 phalanges.

The femur is the single bone the the thigh. The rounded head articulates through the acetabulum the the i know well bone to type the i know good joint. The head has the fovea capitis for attachment the the ligament the the head the the femur. The small neck join inferiorly with the greater and lesser trochanters. Passing in between these bony expansions space the intertrochanteric heat on the anterior femur and also the bigger intertrochanteric comb on the posterior femur. ~ above the posterior tower of the femur is the gluteal tuberosity proximally and the linea aspera in the mid-shaft region. The expanded distal end is composed of three articulating surfaces: the medial and also lateral condyles, and also the patellar surface. The external margins that the condyles space the medial and also lateral epicondyles. The adductor tubercle is on the superior aspect of the medial epicondyle.

The patella is a sesamoid bone situated within a muscle tendon. That articulates v the patellar surface ar on the anterior next of the distal femur, thereby protecting the muscle tendon indigenous rubbing versus the femur.

The leg contains the large tibia ~ above the medial side and also the slim fibula on the lateral side. The tibia bear the load of the body, vice versa, the fibula does no bear weight. The interosseous border of every bone is the attachment website for the interosseous membrane that the leg, the connective organization sheet that unites the tibia and fibula.

The proximal tibia is composed of the broadened medial and lateral condyles, i m sorry articulate with the medial and also lateral condyles the the femur to kind the knee joint. In between the tibial condyles is the intercondylar eminence. ~ above the anterior next of the proximal tibia is the tibial tuberosity, i beg your pardon is consistent inferiorly with the anterior border the the tibia. Top top the posterior side, the proximal tibia has the curved soleal line. The bony expansion on the medial next of the distal tibia is the medial malleolus. The groove on the lateral next of the distal tibia is the fibular notch.

The head of the fibula forms the proximal end and articulates through the underside the the lateral condyle that the tibia. The distal fibula articulates v the fibular notch the the tibia. The broadened distal end of the fibula is the lateral malleolus.

The posterior foot is developed by the seven tarsal bones. The talus articulates superiorly through the distal tibia, the medial malleolus the the tibia, and the lateral malleolus of the fibula to type the fish eye joint. The talus articulates inferiorly through the calcaneus bone. The sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus helps to assistance the talus. Anterior come the talus is the navicular bone, and also anterior come this are the medial, intermediate, and also lateral cuneiform bones. The cuboid bone is anterior come the calcaneus.

The 5 metatarsal bones kind the anterior foot. The base of this bones articulate with the cuboid or cuneiform bones. The metatarsal heads, at your distal ends, articulate v the proximal phalanges the the toes. The big toe (toe number 1) has proximal and also distal phalanx bones. The remaining toes have actually proximal, middle, and also distal phalanges.

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Watch this video to view how a fracture of the mid-femur is surgically repaired. How are the two sections of the broken femur stabilized during surgical repair of a broken femur?


A hole is drilled right into the better trochanter, the bone marrow (medullary) room inside the femur is enlarged, and also finally one intramedullary pole is inserted into the femur. This pole is climate anchored to the bone through screws.