5.3 Mineral Groups

Minerals are organized according to the anion or anion group (a team of atoms through a net negative charge, e.g., SO42–) castle contain, due to the fact that the anion or anion team has the biggest impact on the properties of the mineral. Silicates, with the anion group SiO44-, are by far the many abundant team in the crust and also mantle. (They will certainly be questioned in section 5.4). The different mineral groups along with some examples of mineral in each team are summarized below.

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Oxide Minerals: O2- Anion

Oxide minerals (Figure 5.14) have actually oxygen (O2–) as their anion. Lock don’t encompass anion groups with various other elements, such together the carbonate (CO32–), sulphate (SO42–), and also silicate (SiO44–) anion groups. The stole oxides hematite and magnetite room two examples that are essential ores that iron. Corundum is an abrasive, yet can also be a gemstone in that is ruby and sapphire varieties. If the oxygen is also combined through hydrogen to kind the hydroxyl anion (OH–), the mineral is recognized as a hydroxide. Some necessary hydroxides are limonite and bauxite, which room ores the iron and also aluminum, respectively.

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Figure 5.14 Oxide minerals incorporate metal ore minerals, commercial minerals, and gemstones. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-NC-SA 4.0. Photos by R. Weller/ Cochise College. Click the photo for photo sources.Sulphide Minerals: S2- Anion

Sulphide mineral (Figure 5.15) encompass galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and also molybdenite, which space the most essential ores of lead, zinc, copper, and also molybdenum, respectively. Some various other sulphide minerals space pyrite, bornite, stibnite, and also arsenopyrite. Sulphide minerals often tend to have a metallic sheen.

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Figure 5.15 Sulphide minerals frequently have a metallic lustre and also include metal ores. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-NC-SA 4.0. Image by R. Weller/ Cochise College. Click the picture for photograph sources.Sulphate Minerals: SO42- Anion Group

Many sulphate minerals type when sulphate-bearing water evaporates. A deposit that sulphate minerals may indicate that a lake or sea has dried increase at the location. Sulphates through calcium incorporate anhydrite, and gypsum (Figure 5.16). Sulphates v barium and strontium room barite and also celestite, respectively. In every one of these minerals, the cation has a +2 charge, which balances the –2 fee on the sulphate ion.

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Figure 5.16 Sulphate minerals. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-NC-SA 4.0. Click the photo for picture sources.Halide Minerals: Anions from the Halogen Group

The anions in halides are the halogen aspects including chlorine, fluorine, and also bromine. Examples of halide minerals space cryolite, fluorite, and halite (Figure 5.17). Halide minerals are made of ionic bonds. Like the sulphates, some halides also kind when mineral-rich water evaporates.

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Figure 5.17 Halide minerals. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-NC-SA 4.0. Click the photo for picture sources.Carbonate Minerals: CO32- Anion Group

The carbonate anion team combines v +2 cations to type minerals such as calcite, magnesite, dolomite, and siderite (Figure 5.18). The copper mineral malachite and also azurite are also carbonates. The carbonate mineral calcite is the key component of rocks formed in ancient seas by biology such together corals and algae.

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Figure 5.18 lead carbonate minerals. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-SA 4.0. Image by rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com, CC BY-SA 3.0. Click the image for picture sources.Phosphate Minerals: PO43- Anion

The apatite team of phosphate minerals (Figure 5.19, left) includes hydroxyapatite, which makes up the enamel of your teeth. Turquoise is additionally a phosphate mineral (Figure 5.19, right).

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Figure 5.19 Phosphate minerals. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-NC-SA 4.0. Image by R. Weller/ Cochise College. Click the picture for picture sources.Silicates (SiO44–)

The silicate minerals encompass the facets silicon and also oxygen in differing proportions . This are disputed at length in ar 5.4.

Native aspect Minerals

These are minerals do of a single element, such together gold, copper, silver, or sulphur (Figure 5.20).

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Figure 5.20 Native element minerals are made up of a solitary element. Source: Karla Panchuk (2018) CC BY-SA 4.0. Click the photo for photograph sources.

Exercise: Mineral Groups

Minerals room grouped follow to the anion part of the mineral formula, and mineral formulas are always written with the anion component last. For example, for pyrite (FeS2), Fe2+ is the cation and S– is the anion. This helps us to understand that the a sulphide, however it is not always that obvious. Hematite (Fe2O3) is one oxide; it is easy, yet anhydrite (CaSO4) is a sulphate because SO42– is the anion, no O. Similarly, calcite (CaCO3) is a carbonate, and olivine (Mg2SiO4) is a silicate. Minerals with only one facet (such as S) are indigenous minerals, when those through an anion from the halogen shaft of the regular table (Cl, F, Br, etc.) room halides. Provide group names because that the following minerals:

MineralFormulaGroup
sphaleriteZnS
magnetiteFe3O4
pyroxeneMgSiO3
anglesitePbSO4
sylviteKCl
silverAg
fluoriteCaF2
ilmeniteFeTiO3
sideriteFeCO3
feldsparKAlSi3O8
sulphurS
xenotimeYPO4