All acids and also bases do not ionize or dissociate come the very same extent. This leader to the statement that acids and also bases space not every one of equal toughness in producing H+ and also OH- ions in solution. The state "strong" and also "weak" offer an clues of the stamin of an acid or base. The terms strong and weak describe the capacity of acid and also base services to conduct electricity. If the acid or base conducts electrical energy strongly, the is a solid acid or base. If the mountain or base conducts electricity weakly, that is a weak mountain or base.

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## Demonstration of Acid and also Base Conductivity

The instructor will test the conductivity of various solutions with a light pear apparatus. The light pear circuit is incomplete. If the circuit is perfect by a equipment containing a large number the ions, the irradiate bulb will certainly glow brightly denote a solid ability to conduct electrical power as shown for HCl. If the circuit is perfect by a equipment containing large numbers the molecules and also either no ions or couple of ions, the systems does no conduct or conducts really weakly as presented for acetic acid. Ka = /

where HA is the concentration that the acid at equilibrium, and A- is the concentration the its conjugate basic at equilibrium and for bases the expression will be

ceB>

where B is the concentration the the base at equilibrium and HB+ is the concentration of its conjugate acid at equilibrium

The stronger an mountain is, the lower the pH the will develop in solution. PH is calculation by acquisition the negative logarithm that the concentration that hydronium ions. For strong acids, you can calculate the pH by simply taking the negative logarithm of its molarity as it fully dissociates into its conjugate base and also hydronium. The very same goes for strong bases, except the an unfavorable logarithm gives you the pOH as opposed come the pH. For weak acids and also bases, the greater the Ka or Kb, the an ext acidic or simple the solution. To uncover the pH because that a weak acid or base, you must use the K equation and also a RICE table to determine the pH.

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All acids have a conjugate base that develops when castle react v water, and similarly, all bases have a conjugate acid that reacts when they form with water.1 You have the right to judge the relative strength of a conjugate by the (K_a) or (K_b) value of the substance because (K_a imesK_b) is equal to the ionization consistent of water, Kw i m sorry is equal to (1 imes 10^-14) at room temperature. The higher the Ka, the stronger the mountain is, and also the weaker the conjugate basic is. Similarly, the higher the Kb, the more powerful the substance is as a base, and the an ext weakly acidic its conjugate mountain is.1

### Calculation that Ka

For an acid that reacts with water in the reaction

>

where each bracketed term represents the concentration of the substance in solution.

Relation the Kw, Kb, Ka

Partial list of solid Acids: Hydrochlroic acid (HCl), Nitric mountain (HNO3), Perchloric mountain (HClO4), Sulfuric mountain (H2SO4)

Partial list of solid Bases: sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Barium Hydroxide (Ba(OH)2), Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) (Hydroxides of group I and II elements are generally solid bases)

Partial list of Weak Acids: Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Carbonic acid (H2CO3), Phosphoric mountain (H3PO4)

Partial list of Weak Bases: Ammonia (NH3), Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), salt Acetate (NaCH3COO)