I selected renown Geologist Arthur Holmes, since of his geological contributions come the clinical community. Holmes continued the functions of Wagener elaborating the continental drift theory, i m sorry is now well-known as bowl tectonics. Holmes also revolutionized the method we carbon date within the Geology field through radioactive dating. In addition, Holmes was a famous scholar at several Universities in England. Still now scientist base their geological theories and also methods from Arthur Holmes life works and achievements. Holmes theoretical thinking was beyond his time and while his peers occasionally opposed his theories, Holmes job-related was subsequently proven to it is in on point.

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Biographical Information:

British Geologist Arthur Holmes to be born in 1890, in the small town of Gateshead uk where he invested his childhood. In ~ the period of 17, Arthur Holmes to visit Gateshead Grammar School before enrolling right into the imperial College of scientific research or The royal College London, whereby he learned Physics. In Arthur’s second year of institution he was introduced to geology, i beg your pardon later came to be his passion. ~ graduating from college Holmes uncovered work in Africa together a mineral prospector, which that had little success. Within 6 months of showing up in Africa Holmes came to be extremely ill with malaria indigenous mosquitos. Meanwhile, Holmes family and friends where told that Holmes had passed away in Africa, which lock mourned his thought to it is in death. Within a couple of months Holmes gathered enough strength come voyage earlier to London wherein he surprised his family and also friends. Soon after his return Holmes was readily available a position at the imperial College London together an activist in 1912. Holmes deserve Doctoral level of science in 1917.


"This image portrays a gemstone mining website in west Africa, one prefer Holmes would have spent time at as a prospector after graduating native college."
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Scholar Works:

British Institutions: Durham college (1924–1942), and also University that Edinburgh (1943–1956). In 1924 Holmes ended up being the reader in geology at Durham University. After nine years at Durham University, Holmes was supported to the chair of geology at the university of Edinburgh, which he organized until his retirement in 1956.

Specific contributions to the theory of key tectonics and/or our modern view the the solid Earth

Scientific Theories:

English geologist Arthur Holmes made not one however two significant contributions to our under-standing of exactly how the planet works. He was the an initial earth scientist to understand the mechanical and thermal ramifications of mantle convection, and he widely applied the newly-developed technique of radioactive date to mineral in the very first attempt come quantitatively calculation the age of the Earth.

Continental Drift: Convection the Earth"s Mantle

Holmes promoted the theory of continental drift promoted by Alfred Wegener in ~ a time when it to be profoundly unfashionable through conformist. One problematic worry with the concept was the mechanism of movement, which Holmes advised the Earth"s mantle included convection cells that dissipated radioactive heat and also moved the crust at the surface. Holmes in his ethics of physical Geology concluded v a thing on continent drift. Portion of the version was the principle of the beginning of the seafloor spreading. Favor Wagener, among the many remarkable attribute around Holmes is the proposed his hypothesis at a time when continental drift to be not embraced within the scientific community. Holmes knew his hypothesis to continent drift theory required to necessitate an ext evidence in order to one of two people disprove or prove. Holmes was specifically looking because that the major mechanism to explain how identical geological and also biological evidence might occur top top two different continents throughout an ocean. Holmes’s hypothesis no only created a mechanism by which the continents can move, the also noted a probable explanation for continental rifting and also mountain formation. Holmes main contribution to be his proposed theory that convection occurred within the Earth"s mantle, which explained the push and also pull the continent bowl together and apart. He also assisted researchers in oceanographic research in the 1950s, which publicized the phenomenon known as sea floor spreading. Shortly after in the 1960"s the theory of key tectonics to be established.

Geological Time Scale:

Before Arthur Holmes deserve his Doctoral degree in 1913, Holmes had already formed the very first geological time scale. Holmes provided a relatively new discovery of radioactivity to help him in the creation of the earth’s geological time scale. By utilizing his newly quantitative time scale and other clinical factors, the made an estimate of Earth"s period that was much older than his colleagues had said until the existing calculation of 4 exchange rate years. His initial estimates of Earth"s periods have organized up remarkably well over time: for example, he inserted the start of the Cambrian period at about 600 million year ago; this particular day 590 million years is the time frame largely accepted. Holmes was recognized as the "Father of geological Time Scale".

Example of geology Time Scale


"This is picture of a modern day geology time scale, i m sorry Arthur Holmes occurred the an initial geological time scale similar to this one. Holmes" geological time scale was prior to its time that was slightly turn off scale but he was thought about accurate throughout his time due to his use a new method of dating through radioactive dating. His radioactive dating damaged ground because that today"s geological carbon dating."

Radioactive Dating:

In the early on 20th century, a young Holmes had instituted the usage of radioactivity in calculating the period of the Earth. Because radioactive degeneration happens in ~ a stable rate, it permits us to day rocks by measure up the lot of the original unstable element and the result "daughter" element. Beforehand attempts to day rocks in this method measured the amount of helium provided off in the decay process, but when scientists realized the they couldn"t record all the helium, the young Holmes pointed to an alternate solution. Holmes accomplished creditability upon the demonstrating his date capabilities at an early stage by estimating rock samples from miscellaneous geologic periods. He gave a Carboniferous sample period of 340 million years, a Devonian sample an age of 370 million years, and a Silurian sample period of 430 million years. All three estimates fall with the time spans offered by present-day geologists for those periods. Holmes spent the rest of his career refining his estimate numbers. His last number was ultimately overturned by various other scientists in the 1950s, who estimated an er of over 4.5 billion years, yet he set the groundwork for radiometric dating.



"These are images of Holmes" hypothesis of 1930, wherein he theorized the ide of mantle convection. His image of the theoretical perspective the rock recycle itself right into the mantle in ~ subduction zones, and also then reproducing absent up from the mantle through the Earth"s crust." although his concept was later on proven to be correct, his peers to be skeptical around this theory because of lack of mechanically physical evidence. Holmes" hypothesis of a recycling mantle detailed the physical proof of modern-day plate tectonics."

Scientific Works:

The period of the earth 1913, Harper & Brothers, second edition 1927, third edition 1937.The nomenclature that petrology, with recommendations to selected literature. Thos Murby, London, valve Nostrand, new York, 1920, 2nd edition 1928.Petrographic methods and calculations with some instances of results accomplished Thos Murby, London, 1921, second edition 1930.Radioactivity and also Earth Movements, Trans geology Soc, Glasgow, vol 18, pp 559–606. PdfPrinciples of physical Geology 1944, thomas Nelson & Sons, second edition 1965, third edition (with Doris Holmes) 1978, fourth edition (with Donald Duff) 1993.The Phanerozoic time-scale; a symposium committed to Professor Arthur Holmes geology Society, London, 1964.


In 1944 he released the very first edition of his values of physical Geology, which became a traditional text-book in the UK and also elsewhere.

Other cool ingredient you need to know:


He was awarded both the Wollaston Medal and the Penrose Medal in 1956.The Arthur Holmes Medal that the european Geosciences Union is named after him.

"These images are that Durham college Department the Sciences" Arthur Holmes Isotope Geology Laboratory. The Arthur Holmes Isotope Geology laboratory provides an array of geology tools and also technologies, i m sorry houses: heat Ionisation mass Spectrometry, Plasma Ionisation Multicollector fixed Spectrometry, Micro Drill, and Laser Ablation, and also Clean Labs. Elemental analysis Laboratory, which includes: Quadrupole-Inductively-coupled Plasma Spectrometry, Inductively-coupled Plasma-Atomic emission Spectrometer, various other laboratories, include: eco-friendly Geochemistry Laboratories, secure Isotope Laboratory, Scanning Electron Microscope, Sedimentology Laboratory, Geophysics Workshop, and also Ocean Bottom seismographs."

"Arthur Holmes: Harnessing the Mechanics the Mantle Convection come the theory of continental Drift." American Museum of herbal History. Web. September 4, 2015. Http://www.amnh.org/education/resources/rfl/web/essaybooks/earth/p_holmes.html

"Arthur Holmes." Wikipedia, the totally free Encyclopedia. Web. September 4, 2015.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Holmes

"Complete and Updated Biography because that Arthur Holmes." A collection of the Most exciting Biographies - Updated and Complete. Web. September 6, 2015.http://www.browsebiography.com/bio-arthur_holmes.html

"EGU Awards & Medals | Arthur Holmes." EGU Home. Web. September 4, 2015. https://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-arthur-holmes/

Frankel, Henry. (1978). "Arthur Holmes and Continental Drift." The British newspaper for the background of scientific research 11(2) p.130-50. JSTOR. Web. September 7, 2015 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4025726

"Holmes, Arthur (1890-1965): world of earth Science.

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" ENotes - literature Study Guides, lesson Plans, and also More. Web. September 5, 2015.http://www.enotes.com/earth-science/holmes-arthur

"Plate Tectonics." Wikipedia, the cost-free Encyclopedia. Web. September 8, 2015.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics

"Rocky Road: Arthur Holmes." Strange Science: The Rocky road to contemporary Paleontology and also Biology. Web. September 4, 2015. Http://www.strangescience.net/holmes.htm