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As early as September 1861, the CSA began issuing nationwide currency, promise to pay the bearer the challenge amount — 6 months after ~ the ratification that a peace treaty.

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Within work of the autumn of ft Sumter, four more states join the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The fight lines were currently drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in practically every way. Practically 21 million civilization lived in 23 northern states. The South declared just 9 million human being — including 3.5 million servants — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s greater population, however, the South had an army virtually equal in size during the an initial year of the war.

The North had an huge industrial benefit as well. In ~ the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity the the Union. However that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North produced 97 percent that the country"s firearms, 96 percent the its railroad locomotives, 94 percent that its cloth, 93 percent the its pig iron, and also over 90 percent the its boots and shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads every square mile. There was not also one rifleworks in the entire South.


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The south was at a major disadvantage once it involved manufacturing, however the Confederacy regulated to save its weapons firing by developing ammunition from melted-down bells native churches and also town squares.

All of the principal ingredients the gunpowder were imported. Due to the fact that the North managed the navy, the seas were in the hand of the Union. A blockade can suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was not without resources and willpower.

The South could produce every the food the needed, though transferring it come soldiers and civilians was a major problem. The South likewise had a great nucleus of trained officers. Seven of the eight armed forces colleges in the country were in the South.

The South likewise proved to be very resourceful. By the end of the war, it had developed armories and also foundries in numerous states. They built substantial gunpowder mills and also melted down countless church and plantation bells for bronze to develop cannon.

The South"s greatest strength place in the reality that it to be fighting top top the defensive in its very own territory. Acquainted with the landscape, Southerners could harass north invaders.

The military and also political goals of the Union were lot more daunting to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and also occupy the South. It had to destroy the South"s capacity and will to stand up to — a formidable an obstacle in any type of war.


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"We had actually the poorest commissary arrangements, and all I can get for my men was salt and hard crackers. I made the convalescents shooting squirrels, soil hogs, pheasants, and turkeys with which to make soup for the men." -from the memoirs of Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners appreciated the initial advantage of morale: The south was fighting to maintain its means of life, conversely, the North to be fighting to preserve a union. Slavery did not become a moral cause of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the war began, many vital questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave claims of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and also Delaware had joined the Confederacy? What if britain or France had pertained to the aid of the South? What if a couple of decisive beforehand Confederate victories had actually turned north public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much far better on paper. However many determinants undetermined at the outbreak the war could have tilted the balance sheet toward a different outcome.