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Mixtures& options
grade Level: 11 (10 – 12) Time Required: 30 minute team Size: 4 topic Areas:
Chemistry

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You are watching: Is raisin bran a heterogeneous mixture

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Box panel from iron-fortified cereal box.

an overview

To acquire an knowledge of mixtures and the ide of separation of mixtures, students use solid magnets to find the element of stole in iron-fortified breakfast grain flakes. Through this activity, they see exactly how the iron ingredient of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and also can hence be be separated by physics means.

Engineering connection

Mixtures are identified by the truth that they deserve to be separated into their materials by physics means, such together filtration, evaporation, sublimation and magnetic separation. The is common and also important in chemical and petroleum design to use a combination of such processes to different mixtures into their distinct components. An instance chemical separation applications is the processing of crude oil oil, i m sorry is a mixture of assorted hydrocarbons. While an useful in this natural form, demand is much greater for assorted purified hydrocarbons, such as organic gases, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, lubricating oils, asphalt, etc. Water purification is an additional example that the application of separation techniques. Separations approaches take benefit of differences in chemistry properties such as size, shape, mass or chemical affinity in between the constituents of a mixture. The magnetic separation method uses magnets to different iron particles from a mixture.


finding out Objectives

After this activity, students need to be may be to:

Distinguish and also describe the three varieties of matter: elements, compounds, mixtures.Define pure and impure materials.Give some examples of elements, mixtures and also compounds.Explain the various properties the each team of materials.Explain how engineers use the magnet separation technique to different ferrous and also nonferrous materials.

Educational criter

each cg-tower.com lesson or activity is correlated to one or much more K-12 science, technology, design or mathematics (STEM) educational standards.

all 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards extended in cg-tower.com are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement requirements Network (ASN), a job of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards room hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., scientific research or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.


materials List

Each group needs:

big dishwaterhandful of cereal flakes (iron-fortified)strong magnetclear plastic cupplastic spoon

To share with the class:

~2 cup of iron-fortified cereal2 cup waterblender

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Pre-Req knowledge

define element, mixture and also compound.Explain the differences between pure substances and mixtures.Explain the qualities of the mixtures.Give some examples of elements, mixtures and also compounds.Define the homogeneous and also heterogeneous mixtures and also give part examples.Explain in general how mixtures deserve to be separated.Name part separation techniques.Explain exactly how chemical engineers apply these separation approaches to purify miscellaneous hydrocarbons together as organic gases, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, lubricating oils, asphalt, and so on from crude oil.

Introduction/Motivation

(Present the adhering to information ~ students teams have had a opportunity to experiment with magnets and also cereal flakes in bowls of water, as described in the Procedure section.)

Elements are basic substances that cannot be further lessened to easier substances by simple processes and also are composed of just one kind of atom. All matter is comprised of elements. The facets are classified as pure substances. The elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen space the facets that consist of most living organisms. Some other facets found in living organisms are: magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium. That the 114 recognized elements, 92 take place in nature. The routine table of the chemical facets is a tabular display of the recognized chemical elements. The elements are i ordered it by electron framework so that many chemical properties vary regularly throughout the table.

Compounds are one more class of pure substances. A link is a material composed of two or more different atoms that are chemically external inspection to one another. That way that it can not be separated into its ingredient by mechanically or physical means. For example, if we bring a magnet near a sample of iron sulphide, the iron existing in the stole sulphide cannot be separated. Nature of a link differ entirely from those that its constituent elements. Water is make of hydrogen and also oxygen. However, the properties of hydrogen and also oxygen (both gases) are various from water (liquid). Hydrogen is combustible, oxygen is a supporter of combustion whereas water (composed the both hydrogen and oxygen) puts the end flames. Energy changes are connected in the development of compounds. For example, iron and also sulphur react only when heat is supplied. The constituent aspects in a compound room in a resolved proportion through weight. In water, hydrogen and oxygen are current in a fixed ratio of 1:8 by weight. A compound is a homogeneous substance. The is, the is same throughout in properties and also composition.

Mixtures are classified together impure substances. A mixture is a material containing 2 or an ext elements or compound that room in near contact and are combined in any kind of proportion. Because that example, air, sea water, crude oil, etc. The constituents of a mixture deserve to be separated by physical means, such as filtration, evaporation, sublimation and magnetic separation. In the preparation of a mixture, power is neither progressed nor absorbed. A mixture has actually no definite melting and also boiling point. The ingredient of a mixture retain their original collection of properties. What space some examples of mixtures?

solid in liquid: sugar and coffeeliquid in liquid: water and also alcoholgas in liquid: sodagas in solid: waiting entrapped in soilgas in gas: wait containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.solid in solid: metal alloys

Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture has the exact same uniform appearance and also composition transparent its mass. For example, sugar or salt liquified in water, alcohol in water, etc. A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly various substances or phases. The 3 phases or claims of issue are gas, liquid, and solid. A heterogeneous mixture go not have a uniform composition transparent its fixed (its contents are distributed unevenly), choose the raisins and flakes in a raisin bran cereal.

Most materials discovered in nature space in the form of mixtures. In engineering, a separation process is supplied to transform a mixture the substances into two or more distinct products. This is done by taking benefit of the truth that the different materials of a mixture probably have different properties together as: size, density, solubility, boil point, etc.

Depending on the raw mixture, miscellaneous processes deserve to be work to separate the mixtures. Fairly often, two or an ext processes are provided in mix to obtain the desired separation. In addition to chemical processes, mechanical processes are applied. In the example of rudely oil, one upstream distillation operation feeds its 2 or an ext product streams right into multiple downstream distillation to work to more separate the crude, and so on until final assets are purified.

What room some separation methods for mixtures?

Filtration separates solids native fluids (liquids or gases) through interposing a tool through which just the fluid can pass.Distillation works for mixtures of liquids the have various boiling points.Chromatography separates dissolved substances by various interaction with (that is, take trip through) a material.Centrifugation and also cyclonic separation, achieves separation based on density differences.Drying gets rid of liquids from solids through vaporization.Magnetic separation methods use magnets to pull iron particles from mixtures.

Procedure

Before the Activity

Gather materials.Prepare the grain by put ~2 cups of water and 2 cup of cereal in a blender. Let it sit because that a couple of minutes till the grain is soft, then blend to make a smooth and shake-like slurry.Divide the class into groups of four students each.

With the Students

Show the course a crate of iron-fortified grain flakes and also pose the question: If girlfriend look at the nutritional brand on package of this cereal, you\"ll view that it includes some quantities of steel in its element form. Does that mean that it would be attractive to a magnet? What perform you think? (Expect practically all students think that it will not be attractive to a magnet.)After some discussion, provide a couple of cereal flakes and a magnet to each group and also ask them to try to move the flakes v the magnet. Lock will view that nothing happens; the flakes will not relocate as lock may have predicted. After discussing why nothing taken place (possible reasons: the flake is also big, not sufficient iron in the flakes, too much friction to overcome, magnet not strong enough), questioning what can be excellent to conquer some of these issues. (Hopefully, a college student will imply the idea the floating the flake on some water.)Direct groups to location a huge dish on your tables and fully fill them v water, above the rim. An extremely slowly placed a big cereal flake ~ above the water surface, near the middle. If the cereal flake is too close come the rim, it will go relocate towards the rim due to the fact that of the water\"s surface ar tension. If the grain flake soaks in the water, slowly and carefully put another one top top the water again. Questioning the groups to try using the magnets now. Straight them to put the magnet an extremely close to the grain flake and move the magnet an extremely slowly in one direction. (Oh yaaaa!!!!) suppose students to view that the flake moves! come verify that its movement is due to the magnet, slowly change the direction the magnet is moving. If the cereal follows the magnet, then it is because of the iron present in the cereal.After doing this part of the activity, present to students the content details on elements, mixtures, compounds, homogenous and also heterogeneous mixtures, and the separation that mixtures, as detailed in the Introduction/Motivation section. If the topic has been explained to student before, just quiz them together a brief review.After students have actually learned around mixtures, ask lock some question related come the stole in the cereal:Is cereal a compound or a mixture? (mixture)Do that is ingredients save their separation, personal, instance properties? (yes)Is this valuable for separating materials of the mixture? (yes)Make the adhering to points:The individual materials in mixtures maintain their own physical properties.This conservation of properties can be taken advantage of to different out contents from a mixture.A homogeneous mixture is one in i m sorry the materials are same distributed. A heterogeneous mixture has uneven circulation of the components. Breakfast cereals are an excellent examples that heterogeneous mixtures (think that the raisins and also flakes in a raisin bran cereal).Iron in that elemental type is strong attracted come magnets. Compound of iron room not as strongly attractive to magnets.Continue on v the activity. To water samples of the already-prepared cereal slurry into clear plastic cups, one because that each group. Straight groups to have one student organize a magnet against the outside of the cup around midway up, while one more student offers the plastic spoon to gently stir the slurry because that 20-30 seconds. What happens? intend to view a black line show up on the cup wall, which is the iron corpuscle being stopped close come the magnet.Conclude v a course discussion that renders the point that utilizing magnets is a useful way to separate iron from mixtures. The is the really same method that recycling centers use magnets to separate cans native plastic and also cardboard, and also materials engineers use magnets to separate ferrous native nonferrous materials.

Vocabulary/Definitions

compound: A pure chemistry substance consists of 2 or much more different chemical elements.

element: A substance consisting one form of atom.

heterogeneous mixture: A mixture written of visibly various substances or phases.

homogeneous mixture: A mixture that has actually a uniform appearance and composition transparent its mass.

mixture: A problem consisting of 2 or much more materials.

assessment

Pre/Post task Quiz: Before starting the activity, gauge students\" level the pre-existing understanding by questioning them come classify together either elements (pure substances), compounds or mixtures a range of different items the are current in the classroom or listed on a display table. Repeat a similar quiz at activity end, also asking them come differentiate in between homogeneous and also heterogeneous mixtures, to assess any adjust in content knowledge.

Troubleshooting advice

For ideal results, choose (and check in advance!) cereals that claim to meet 100% RDA for iron. Not all cereals job-related well because that this activity.

See more: This Is An Element With Full Valence Shell, Very Unreactive.

This digital library content was arisen by the university of Houston\"s college of engineering under national Science foundation GK-12 provide number DGE 0840889. However, these materials do not necessarily stand for the policies of the NSF and you need to not i think endorsement by the federal government.