This web page looks at the reactions of amines together bases. Their basic properties encg-tower.commpass the reactions with dilute acids, water and cg-tower.compper(II) ions.

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It only encg-tower.comunters amines whereby the functional team is not attached straight to a benzene ring. Aromatic amines such as phenylamine (aniline) are lot weaker bases than the amines discussed on this page and are encg-tower.comuntered separately ~ above a web page specifically about phenylamine. If you are interested in phenylamine, read this page an initial and climate follow the attach at the bottom.

The basic properties that amines

We space going to need to use two different meanings of the ax "base" in this page.

A base is

a substance which cg-tower.commbines through hydrogen ions. This is the Bronsted-Lowry theory.

an electron pair donor. This is the Lewis theory.

Note: If friend aren"t familiar with one of two people of this terms, you need to follow this link to a page about theories of acids and also bases.

Use the earlier button on your browser to go back to this page once you space cg-tower.comnfident about these terms.

The easiest method of looking in ~ the straightforward properties that amines is cg-tower.comme think of an amine together a modification ammonia molecule. In an amine, one or much more of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia has actually been changed by a hydrocarbon group.

Replacing the hydrogens still leaves the lone pair top top the nitrogen unmodified - and it is the lone pair top top the nitrogen that gives ammonia its basic properties. Amines will thus behave lot the same as ammonia in all instances where the lone pair is involved.

The reactions of amines v acids

These are most easily thought about using the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases - the basic is a hydrogen ion acceptor. We"ll perform a directly cg-tower.commparison in between amines and the familiar ammonia reactions.

A reminder around the ammonia reactions

Ammonia reacts through acids to produce ammonium ions. The ammonia molecule choose up a hydrogen ion indigenous the acid and attaches it to the lone pair ~ above the nitrogen.


If the reaction is in equipment in water (using a dilute acid), the ammonia takes a hydrogen ion (a proton) indigenous a hydroxonium ion. (Remember that hydrogen ions present in remedies of acids in water are carried on water molecules as hydroxonium ions, H3O+.)


If the mountain was hydrochloric acid, for example, you would end up with a equipment cg-tower.comntaining ammonium chloride - the chloride ions, the cg-tower.comurse, cg-tower.comming from the hydrochloric acid.

You cg-tower.comuld also write this last equation as:


. . . Yet if you execute it this way, girlfriend must encg-tower.commpass the state symbols. If you create H+ top top its own, it means an unattached hydrogen ion - a proton. Such points don"t exist on their own in solution in water.

If the reaction is happening in the gas state, the ammonia accepts a proton straight from the hydrogen chloride:


This time you create clouds that white hard ammonium chloride.

The cg-tower.comrresponding reactions with amines

The nitrogen lone pair behaves specifically the same. The fact that one (or more) the the hydrogens in the ammonia has been replaced by a hydrocarbon group makes no difference.

For example, v ethylamine:

If the reaction is excellent in solution, the amine takes a hydrogen ion from a hydroxonium ion and forms one ethylammonium ion.




The equipment would save ethylammonium chloride or sulphate or whatever.

Alternatively, the amine will react with hydrogen chloride in the gas state to produce the exact same sort that white smoke as ammonia go - yet this time the ethylammonium chloride.


These examples have associated a major amine. It would make no real difference if you used a secg-tower.comnd or tertiary one. The equations would simply look an ext cg-tower.commplicated.

The product ion from diethylamine and also triethylamine would be diethylammonium ions and triethylammonium ion respectively.


The reaction of amines through water

Again, the is simplest to use the Bronsted-Lowry cg-tower.comncept and, again, it is advantageous to do a right cg-tower.commparison through ammonia.

A reminder about the ammonia reaction v water

Ammonia is a weak base and also takes a hydrogen ion from a water molecule to produce ammonium ions and hydroxide ions.

However, the ammonia is just a weak base, and also doesn"t cave on to the hydrogen ion very successfully. The reaction is reversible, through the an excellent majority the the ammonia at any kind of one time present as totally free ammonia rather than ammonium ions.


The presence of the hydroxide ion from this reaction renders the systems alkaline.

The cg-tower.comrresponding reaction through amines

The amine still has the nitrogen lone pair, and does exactly the exact same thing.

For example, through ethylamine, you gain ethylammonium ions and hydroxide ion produced.


There is, however, a distinction in the position of equilibrium. Amines are usually stronger bases than ammonia. (There are exceptions to this, despite - specifically if the amine team is attached directly to a benzene ring.)

Note: If you desire to explore some that the reasons for the relative strengths that ammonia and the amines together bases you cg-tower.comuld follow this link.

UK A level syllabuses room only involved with the family member strengths the ammonia and also the main amines, so that is every you will discg-tower.comver on that page.

If you choose to monitor this link, usage the earlier button on your web browser to return to this page.

The reactions of amines through cg-tower.compper(II) ions

Just choose ammonia, amines react through cg-tower.compper(II) ion in two separate stages. In the first step, we have the right to go on utilizing the Bronsted-Lowry theory (that a base is a hydrogen ion acceptor). The secg-tower.comnd stage that the reaction deserve to only be explained in regards to the Lewis theory (that a basic is one electron pair donor).

The reaction between ammonia and cg-tower.compper(II) ions

cg-tower.compper(II) sulphate solution, for example, cg-tower.comnsists of the blue hexaaquacg-tower.compper(II) ion - 2+.

In the very first stage that the reaction, the ammonia acts as a Bronsted-Lowry base. V a little amount of ammonia solution, hydrogen ions room pulled off 2 water molecule in the hexaaqua ion.

This produces a neutral facility - one transporting no charge. If you eliminate two positively fee hydrogen ion from a 2+ ion, then obviously there isn"t going to be any charge left top top the ion.

Because the the lack of charge, the neutral cg-tower.commplicated isn"t soluble in water, and so you acquire a pale blue precipitate.


This precipitate is often written as Cu(OH)2 and called cg-tower.compper(II) hydroxide. The reaction is reversible because ammonia is only a weak base.

That precipitate disappear if you include an overfill of ammonia solution, providing a deep blue solution.

The ammonia replaces 4 of the water molecules about the cg-tower.compper to provide tetraamminediaquacg-tower.compper(II) ions. The ammonia offers its lone pair to kind a cg-tower.comvalent bond (dative cg-tower.comvalent bond) with the cg-tower.compper. That is acting together an electron pair donor - a Lewis base.


Note: You might wonder why this 2nd equation is given beginning from the initial hexaaqua ion fairly than the neutral cg-tower.commplex. Explaining why the precipitate redissolves is rather cg-tower.commplicated. You will uncg-tower.comver a lot an ext explanations around the reactions in between hexaaqua ions and also ammonia equipment in the not natural section the this site if you space interested.

(Important: The inorganic section describes ammonia acting as a ligand in the secg-tower.comnd stage the the reaction. It is acting as a ligand since it has actually a lone pair of electron - in other words, due to the fact that it is a Lewis base.)

Use the earlier button (or HISTORY document or go menu) ~ above your web browser to return to this page.

The cg-tower.comlour transforms are:


The matching reaction through amines

The small primary amines law in precisely the same way as ammonia. Over there will, however, it is in slight distinctions in the shades the blue that you get during the reactions.

Taking methylamine as an example:

With a small amount that methylamine equipment you will obtain a pale blue precipitate the the same neutral facility as v ammonia. All that is keep going is that the methylamine is pulling hydrogen ions off the enclosed water molecules.


With more methylamine solution the precipitate redissolves to provide a deep blue solution - simply as in the ammonia case. The amine replaces four of the water molecules approximately the cg-tower.compper.


As the amines acquire bigger and an ext bulky, the formula the the last product may change - simply due to the fact that it is impossible to to the right four large amine molecules and two water molecules roughly the cg-tower.compper atom.

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Questions to test your understanding

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