Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the deliver of an electron indigenous a steel atom to a non-metal atom.

You are watching: Ions form when atoms gain or lose


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds room formed in between cations and anions.A cation is created when a metal ion loses a valence electron when an anion is formed when a non-metal benefit a valence electron. They both achieve a much more stable electronic configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating fads of atoms, with high melt points, and also are typically soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, make the result solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of one atom to tempt electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemical bond in i beg your pardon valence electron are shed from one atom and gained through another. This exchange outcomes in a an ext stable, noble gas digital configuration because that both atoms involved. One ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of the contrary charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic binding involve a cation and an anion. The bond is developed when an atom, frequently a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and also becomes a hopeful ion, or cation. An additional atom, frequently a non-metal, is may be to gain the electron(s) to come to be a an adverse ion, or anion.

One example of an ionic link is the development of salt fluoride, NaF, native a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loser its single valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has just enough room to accept it. The ions created are oppositely charged and are attracted to one one more due to electrostatic forces.


Formation that NaF: one electron is moved from Na come F. The result Na+ and F– ions room electrically attractive to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, room crystalline solids under common conditions, and also have high melt points. Many of this solids room soluble in H2O and conduct electrical power when dissolved. The ability to conduct electrical power in systems is why these substances are dubbed electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a an excellent example of this kind of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states associated with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, however the larger the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms, the greater the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen describes how ionic solids type when cations and anions space attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure of the bond strength in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the components that affect it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is defined as the energy required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot it is in measured empirically, however it have the right to be calculated utilizing electrostatics or approximated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main components that contribute to the magnitude of the lattice energy are the charge and radius the the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases warm into its surroundings.lattice energy: The lot of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic solid from gas ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. That is characterized as the warm of development for ions of opposite charge in the gas step to combine into one ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of salt chloride, NaCl, is the power released as soon as gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ion come together to kind a lattice of alternate ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an unfavorable sign the the energy is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, shown in purple and green respectively, alternate in the decision lattice of heavy NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be believed of as the energy required to separate a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction presented above).

Lattice power cannot be identified experimentally as result of the challenge in isolating gas ions. The energy value deserve to be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculation theoretically through an electrostatic examination of the decision structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande presented the complying with model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the crystal geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility that the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of complimentary space; and r0 is the distance to the the next ion.

This model emphasizes 2 main factors that add to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and the radius, or size, that the ions. The effect of those components is:

as the charge of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ion increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are likewise important in predicting the solubility the ionic solids in H2O. Ionic compound with smaller sized lattice energies often tend to be an ext soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound deserve to be identified by the loss or acquire of valence electrons vital in bespeak to attain stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The number of cations and also anions the are combined in an ionic link is the simplest ratio of entirety integers that can be combined to reach electrical neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the elements of group 18 that the periodic table, which room monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, which occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has no surplus or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The simplest whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula that a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion created of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is developed through the deliver of one or much more valence electrons, typically from a steel to a non-metal, i m sorry produces a cation and also an anion that are bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and are solids at regular temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride decision lattice


The fee on the cations and also anions is established by the variety of electrons required to accomplish stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic ingredient is then defined by the requirement that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we first note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In bespeak to attain noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom requirements to lose its 2 valence electrons, if the bromine atom, which has 7 valence electrons, calls for one extr electron to to fill its outer shell. Therefore, for the resulting link to be neutral, two bromine anions must incorporate with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio of 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will accomplish the two demands above, the formula for ionic link is frequently presented together the empirical formula, or the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms with confident integers.

Note the the cation always precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the written form, while the cation surname is usually the same as the element, the suffix the single-atom anions is adjusted to –ide, together in the instance of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, its suffix deserve to vary, yet is frequently either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– combine to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– integrate to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- integrate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- combine to form Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- combine to form Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- combine to form (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– incorporate to kind KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer that valence electrons, frequently from a steel to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared in between the ingredient atoms, meaning all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is figured out by the family member electronegativities that the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent shortcut that has actually a partial ionic character to it, together a result of the difference in electronegativity in between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the propensity of one atom to tempt electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are frequently classified by the bonds between constituent atoms. There are multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the finish loss or get of one or an ext valence electron from a metal to a nonmetal, resulting in cations and also anions that are held together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of an ionic bond between lithium and also fluorine to form LiF.


Example of a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom develops a bond v fluorine, castle share a pair of electrons. However, due to the fact that fluorine is an ext highly electronegative than carbon, it attractive that common electron pair closer to itself and also thus create an electrical dipole. The lowercase greek delta written above the atoms is supplied to indicate the visibility of partial charges. This shortcut is considered to have qualities of both covalent and also ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atom is more complicated than this model illustrates. The bond developed between any kind of two atoms is not a purely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have actually some covalent character due to the fact that the electron thickness remains shared in between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent personality of a shortcut is figured out by the difference in electronegativity in between the ingredient atoms. The larger the difference, the more ionic the nature that the bond. In the conventional presentation, bonds room designated together ionic when the ionic element is greater than the covalent aspect of the bond. Bonds that loss in in between the 2 extremes, having both ionic and covalent character, room classified together polar covalent bonds. Such bonds space thought of together consisting of partially charged confident and negative poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character represent points follow me a continuum, these designations room frequently beneficial in understanding and comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and also covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds frequently have higher boiling and also melting points, and also they are also usually an ext soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.