We have previously debated the Lewis structures of CO2, O3, SO2, SO3 and more. Today we room going to learn about the Lewis structure of H2O molecule along with its molecule geometry and shape.

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Water is among the many uncomplicated chemical compounds come understand provided it has a straightforward Lewis structure. While we always knew chemistry is everywhere, we definitely didn’t know that even water has actually chemical formulas earlier in our childhood days. Water has a chemical formula that H2O as it is consisted of of two hydrogen atoms and also one oxygen atom. This molecule additionally has an additional chemical surname of Dihydrogen monoxide.

Name that moleculeWater ( H2O)
No of Valence electron in the molecule8
Hybridization of H2Osp3 hybridization
Bond Angles104.5 degrees
Molecular Geometry of H2OBent

In this blog, we will certainly look in ~ its Lewis structure, Hybridization, molecule Geometry and Bond angles. This can help you understand the other physical and chemical nature of the molecule. But prior to looking in ~ its Lewis Structure, us will an initial go v the total number of valence electrons because that this molecule together these electrons space the persons that participate in bond formation.


H2O Valence electrons

To obtain the total number of valence electrons for this molecule, we will include up Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms’ valence electrons.

Valence electron of Hydrogen: 1*2 ( together there are 2 Hydrogen atoms, we will multiply it by 2)

Valence electrons of Oxygen: 6

Total number of valence electron in H2O: 2 + 6

= 8 valence electrons

Thus, H2O has a total of 8 valence electrons.

H2O Lewis Structure

Lewis structure for any type of molecule help to recognize the bonds formed in the structure and also the electrons participating in the shortcut formation. The electrons that participate in bond formation are well-known as the bonding pair the electrons. In contrast, the ones the don’t take part in any type of bond formation are referred to as nonbonding bag of electrons or lone bag of electrons. 

Here us will very first place the atoms and also individual valence electrons to understand the Lewis framework of H2O step-by-step.

Oxygen atoms will take a central position together Hydrogen atoms constantly go ~ above the outside. So ar Oxygen in the centre with both the Hydrogen atom on the side. Each Hydrogen atom here needs one much more valence electron to achieve a steady structure. Similarly, Oxygen atom requirements two valence electron to complete its octet.

Both Hydrogen atoms will share one valence electron that the Oxygen atom to obtain a secure structure. For reflecting the share of electrons, display a single bond on both sides. 

This is the Lewis structure of the H2O molecule that has two solitary bonds in between Oxygen and Hydrogen. As a result, there are two lone bag in this molecule and also two bonding bag of electrons. 


H2O Hybridization

When 2 atoms share electron and type bonds, there is the formation of hybridized orbitals. These orbitals aid us to predict the hybridization the the molecule. Right here we will certainly look at the Oxygen atom’s hybridization together it shares 2 of its valence electrons v both Hydrogen atoms. 3 2p orbitals that Oxygen and also one 2s orbital are hybridized as there space two bag of bonding electrons and also two lone pairs. And also as 4 orbitals the Oxygen room hybridized, the hybridization the H2O is sp3.

See more: A Substance Has A Volume Of 10.0 Cm3 And A Mass Of 89 Grams. What Is Its Density?

H2O molecule Geometry

The molecule geometry of any type of molecule relies on that Lewis structure, the setup of atoms and its electrons. In H2O molecule, the Oxygen atom creates two single sigma bonds with Hydrogen atoms. Back these 2 Hydrogen atoms are arranged symmetrically in the plane, the 2 lone bag of electrons on the Oxygen atom press these atoms. 

As the repulsion pressures from the lone pairs are an ext than the repulsive forces of external inspection pairs, the setup of atoms is distorted. Therefore the molecule geometry that the water molecule is angular or v-shaped, and some people also refer to this link geometry as distorted tetrahedron geometry. 


H2O link Angle

The bond angle for the molecules having a tetrahedral geometry is 109°, yet as the geometry that H2O molecule is distorted due to the existence of the lone bag of electrons, the bond angle decreases indigenous 109° come 104.5°


H2O Shape

The molecular shape of the H2O molecule is bent.

Concluding Remarks 

To summarize this write-up we deserve to say the the H2O molecule comprises two hydrogen atoms and also one oxygen atom.There room a total of 8 valence electrons because that this molecule, the end of which 4 are supplied to form O-H sigma bonds.There room two lone pairs on the Oxygen atom as it doesn’t participate in forming bonds.The oxygen atom in the H2O molecule has actually sp3 hybridization, and the bond edge of H-O-H is 104.5°The molecular geometry and also the form of the water molecule space bent due to the repulsion pressures of lone pairs.