External Reproductive Organs

Penis and Prepuce 

The stallion’s penis consists of 3 parts: (1) the root or bulb, (2) the human body or shaft, (the key part), and (3) the glans, the enlarged totally free end of the penis. Once not erect, the dick is 50 cm long and 2.5 come 6 centimeter in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 cm totally free in the prepuce. Once erect, the dick doubles in length and also thickness and the glans boosts by 3 come 4 times. The prepuce or sheath is a twin invagination of the skin the covers the distal portion of the prick when no erect. Check of the penis and prepuce is most conveniently excellent at the moment of washing. Enable the stallion to approach the mare in order come be stimulated to let down, in ~ which time the penis extends native the sheath. Practice caution because some stallions might be wake up to be examined and cow kick or absent backwards at the examiner. Be careful to safeguard everyone involved. Examine the penis and prepuce both manually and also visually. Understand the column of the penis just behind the glans. Examine the urethral process for lesions and the connected structures because that debris or other international material. The examination continues up the pillar where any injuries, scars or various other lesions room noted. Through the prick exposed, study the internal and external part of the prepuce. Normally a small amount of greasy smegma is uncovered at the base of the penis. Any type of trauma or injury come the cock or prepuce have the right to be an extremely detrimental to the stallion’s capability to sheathe a mare and could an outcome in lengthy term mental problems. This is particularly true if the stallion is kicked by the mare if attempting to each other her. Trauma can also occur by improper handling of synthetic vaginas.

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Scrotum

The scrotum is an outpouching that skin in the inguinal area that encloses the testes. It has a longitudinal midline where the 2 sacs space fused. The scrotum may be examined at the time of washing or ~ ejaculation, which might be much safer for everyone involved. The stallion’s scrotum is not as pendulous as a bull’s and also is held closer to the abdomen. The scrotum’s skin is soft and also pliable through a greasy texture as result of sebaceous glands. The scrotum is important in thermoregulation the the testicles.

Testicles and also Epididymides

The testes room ovoid structures, measuring 8 to 12 cm long by 6 come 7 cm high by 5 centimeter wide. Lock consist of seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenesis occurs and also interstitial organization of which the Leydig cells produce testosterone. The testicles should be freely movable within the scrotal sac. The epididymides are divided into 3 parts: (1) head; (2) body and also (3) tail. The head the the epididymis is closely attached to the testicle’s anterior dorsal aspect. The human body of the epididymis proceeds along the testicle’s back side till it terminates at the rather big tail that the epididymis the is loose attached come the testicle’s tail. The testes and also epididymides space palpated with the scrotal wall surface to determine their presence, size, symmetry and also consistency. The regular stallion has actually two testes. Palpation need to reveal that they have the exact same consistency v no abnormalities of shape or texture. The ideal testis is typically slightly smaller sized than the left. Determine testicular size by measure up scrotal width of both testicles. Measure up scrotal width making use of calipers at the point of best width with a nonerect penis. Scrotal broad is positively associated with day-to-day sperm production and output. Normal scrotal widths variety from 9 come 13 cm. Stallions older than 7 year of age tend come have better scrotal widths than younger stallions. Particular medications, specifically androgens, adversely impact testicular size. Cryptorchidism is usual in stallions and also its genetic regulate is not totally understood. The left testicle is the one most frequently retained. Congenital cryptorchid stallions have to not be thought about for breeding.

Internal Reproductive Organs
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The ductus deferens is the continuation of the epididymis and also runs native the tail of the epididymis v the inguinal canal come the area the the neck of the bladder. The duct broadens near the bladder to type the ampulla which acts together a sperm warehouse organ.

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Accessory Sex Glands

The vesicular glands, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands are collectively called the accessory sex glands. Castle all administer a part of the seminal fluid, but are not essential for fertility. This glands are typically rectally palpated. The vesicular glands room usually the most daunting to palpate because before teasing lock are basically collapsed. However, ~ vigorous teasing, the vesicles enlarge due to the buildup of the gels fraction and are simpler to palpate. This is why it might be more desirable come palpate after ~ teasing, however on the other hand, most stallions are much more tractable complying with ejaculation. So, timing the rectal check is largely at the examiner’s discretion.