As a rule, the brake circuits on most vehicles v anti-lock brakes can be bled in the usual manner — noted no air has obtained into the ABS modulator assembly

by Larry Carley, Babcox technological Editor
Bleeding the brakes after brake contents have been replaced is a action you don’t want to skip if you want a firm brake pedal. Wait trapped in the lines, calipers or wheel cylinders will make the pedal feeling soft and spongy. Wait is compressible, so once the brakes are applied any air balloon in the mechanism must very first be compressed before the hydraulic fluid will transmit press to apply the brakes.

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As a rule, the brake circuits on most vehicles with anti-lock brakes can be bled in the normal manner — provided no wait has gotten into the ABS modulator assembly. If the only components you replaced were downstream of the modulator (calipers, wheel cylinders, brake hoses or lines), possibilities are typical bleeding procedures will clean the currently of any kind of unwanted air.
Brakes can be bled manually, v a power bleeder, injector device or vacuum bleeder. It no make any type of difference which technique you usage as long as every the lines and components are flushed with enough fluid come remove any trapped air balloon or waiting pockets.

The most typical bleeding procedure is come bleed the brake furthest native the understand cylinder first, climate bleed the various other brake that shares the same hydraulic circuit (which may be the other rear brake on a rear-wheel drive vehicle or truck, or the opposite prior brake ~ above a front-wheel drive automobile or minivan).
After these have been bled, you climate bleed the other brake circuit beginning with the furthest brake native the grasp cylinder.

Always refer to the auto manufacturer’s recommended bleeding sequence together this might vary from one application to an additional depending on exactly how the mechanism is configured.

Look before You LeapBut what if you replaced the master cylinder, a brake line or valve front of the ABS modulator? Or, what if you had to change the modulator or high pressure accumulator? currently you have actually a more complicated job front of you.

Air deserve to be very complicated to eliminate from an ABS modulator assembly because of all the nooks and also crannies within the unit. The modulator may have eight to 10, or more, ABS/traction manage solenoid valves, to add various inspect valves and dead-end ports. Some ABS modulators have actually special bleed screws to help you vent the trapped air when bleeding the system. Others do not and also require the use of a scan tool to bicycle the ABS solenoids while friend bleed the system.
To better understand what may be required, let’s look at part bleeding actions for some common General motors ABS systems.

The Delco ABS-VI SystemIntroduced in 1991 together an alternative on Saturn, Buick Skylark, Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais and also Pontiac grand Am models, the Delco ABS-VI anti-lock brake system has been used on a wide range of general Motors front-wheel-drive vehicles, consisting of Chevrolet Lumina and APV, Chevrolet Beretta, Corsica and also Cavalier, Pontiac cool Prix, Sunbird, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme and also Buick Regal.

The Delco VI system is a nonintegral ABS system with a conventional master brake cylinder and power booster. The has 4 wheel-speed sensors, however is a three-channel system. The former brakes are regulated separately, however the rear brakes share a common ABS circuit.
Attached to the master cylinder is the hydraulic modulator and motor pack assembly. The modulator is held by 2 banjo bolts at the master cylinder’s 2 upper outlet ports, and two transport tubes in ~ the two lower outlet ports. An essential service point to note right here is that the two lower transfer tubes and also O-rings need to be replaced if the grasp cylinder and modulator are disconnected from one another. This is important to protect against leaks the could reason the brakes to fail.

The modulator assembly has fluid chambers for all 4 brakes, two isolation solenoid valves, four examine balls, a motor load containing 3 bidirectional direct existing motors v electromagnetic brakes (EMBs) and/or expansion spring brakes (ESBs), three sphere screw assemblies, four pistons, a gear drive collection and gear cover. The modulator motor pack, isolation solenoid valves, equipment cover and also individual gears space all serviceable parts and can be replaced separately.
The brakes ~ above GM cars equipped v Delco ABS-VI might be bled making use of manual, vacuum or push bleeding. The normal bleeding succession is best rear, left rear, appropriate front, left front.

Bleeding a Delco ABS-VI SystemBefore girlfriend begin, however, you must make certain the rear pistons in the Delco ABS-VI modulator room in the house position therefore the check balls are unseated. If this is not done, friend won’t be able to bleed the behind brake lines.

There are two ways that this can be accomplished:With the tech 1 or comparable scan tool, choose the F4 ABS test mode, then choose the F0 “manual control” option. You have the right to now command the behind motor to journey the pistons come the house position.Without a scan tool, open up the front bleeder screw at the modulator. There space two, therefore be sure you open the former one. Then bleed the modulator. Close the screw, climate bleed both prior brakes beginning with the appropriate one first.
After checking for a for sure pedal, journey the vehicle over three miles every hour. The controller will instantly reset the system by commanding the rear motor to run to the residence position. As soon as this has occurred, you have the right to stop the vehicle and bleed the behind brakes.

The Delphi DBC-7 ABS SystemIntroduced ~ above 1999 Buick Regal and Century, and Chevrolet Tracker, the Delphi Brake regulate (DBC) 7 ABS system is the follower to the Delco ABS-VI system. It changed ABS-VI in 2000 top top Chevrolet Impala, Monte Carlo, Malibu, Cavalier and also Venture, Pontiac Sunfire and Montana, and also Oldsmobile Cutlass and Silhouette.

Unlike the earlier ABS-VI system, DBC-7 go not use motor moved plungers to cycle pressure in the brake lines. It offers solenoids like many other ABS systems. The Brake push Modulator Valve has actually one inlet (apply) valve and one outlet (release) valve because that each brake channel, plus two accumulators (one for each brake circuit).
So the BPMV has a full of six ABS valves for 3 channel mechanism applications, eight ABS valves for four channel systems, or 10 ABS valves if the auto has TCS traction control. The inlet valves are usually open, and also the outlet valves are generally closed. The solenoid for each valve is energized once the EBCM offers a ground to finish the circuit.

The GM passenger auto applications are all four-channel ABS systems, so each of the four BPMV outlets isconnected to the brake line for a different wheel. The present are shade coded for identification:• Left behind is purple;• ideal rear is yellow;• Left front is red; and• appropriate front is green.
Bleeding a Delphi DBC-7 ABS UnitNormal bleeding procedures deserve to be provided to bleed the separation, personal, instance brake lines listed no wait has gone into the ABS modulator. However if waiting has gotten in the modulator, the system will have to be bled making use of a push bleeder and also scan tool:1.Connect the push bleeder to the grasp cylinder reservoir.

2. Revolve the ignition on.

3.With bleeder screws closed, pressurize the mechanism to 35 psi.

4.Select the “Automatic Bleed Procedure” ~ above the scan tool. The scan tool will climate energize and cycle the ABS solenoids in the BPMV for one minute.
After this, the scan device will instruct you come bleed every wheel. During this step, the pump runs and the respective release valve cycles for one minute. This is repeated for every wheel. Finally, the scan tool performs a last 20 second cycling the the ABS solenoids to purge any remaining air.

5. Relieve push at the bleed tool and also remove that from the grasp cylinder. Then examine pedal height and feel come make sure all the air has been removed and also the pedal is firm.

The Bosch 5 ABS SystemIn 1995, Corvettes to be equipped with a Bosch 5 ABS system, which changed the previous Bosch ABS/ASR system. The Bosch 5 device was likewise used ~ above 1996 come 1999 Chevy Caprice and also Impala, Buick, heritage Wagon and Roadmaster, and Cadillac Deville, Eldorado, Fleetwood and Seville.

The modulator assembly provides solenoids for each brake circuit, but there space no unique bleeder valves or one-of-a-kind scan tool bleed procedure. For this reason the brakes have the right to be bled conventionally. The succession if best rear, left rear, ideal front and also left front.
Understanding Older, Integral ABS SystemsIntegral ABS equipment were discontinued long ago, but you might still conference this kind of ABS system on some older vehicles. The GM applications incorporate the Delco III Powermaster mechanism on 1989-91 Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass and Pontiac cool Prix and GTU models. It is functionally comparable to the Teves mark 2, Bosch III and Bendix 9 and also 10 ABS integral ABS systems provided on older GM, Ford and also Chrysler vehicles.

Integral ABS equipment use a high pressure pump and also accumulator for power aided braking as well as anti-lock braking. As a rule, the accumulator need to be depressurized before doing any type of brake fix work. Some of these systems can produce pressures of up to 2,700 psi, so never ever open a brake line or attempt to replace any kind of of the ABS hydraulic contents until the accumulator has actually been fully depressurized.
This is done by pumping the brake pedal firmly 40 times with the ignition off.

After repairs have actually been made, the lines deserve to be bled manually, v a traditional power bleeder, injector device or vacuum bleeder. With every one of these methods, leave the an essential off so the ABS pump does no pressurize the accumulator. Each of the brakes deserve to then it is in bled in the normal manner following the succession recommended through the automobile manufacturer. Top top the GM cars, the normal sequence is best rear, left rear, best front and also left front.

If the master cylinder or ABS modulator has actually been replaced, or over there is waiting in either unit, the ABS modulator will need to be bled making use of a certain procedure. ~ above the older GM applications through the Powermaster III ABS system, here’s the encourage procedure:
1. To bleed the isolation valves in the modulator, there space two bleeder screws. Begin with the one toward the engine. Turn the ignition on and apply light pressure on the brake pedal. Open up the bleeder screw and permit the liquid to flow until clear. Close the screw and also do the very same at the second bleeder screw.

2. Depressurize the accumulator by pumping the pedal 40 times v the vital off. Wait around two minutes because that the brake liquid to de-aerate, then refill the fluid reservoir with DOT 3 brake fluid.

3. Currently you deserve to bleed the an increase section. This is excellent by using moderate pressure on the brake pedal and transforming the ignition top top for three seconds, then off. Repeat this a complete of 10 times. Make certain the pedal feel firm as soon as you have finished, and give the auto a roadway test to make sure the brakes room working properly.

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Note: over there is likewise a “solenoid bleed test” alternative you have the right to use if you have actually a technology 1 scan tool. This will certainly cycle the hold and also release solenoids to purge air from the booster.