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Eumaeus, Odysseus and also the dog Argos | od339gen: "A hound the lay there raised his head and also pricked up his ears, Argos, the hound of Odysseus, that the steadfast heart, whom of old he had actually himself bred." (Hom.Od.17.290). Bonaventura Genelli (1798 – 1868).

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The Disguised Odysseus: "Eumaeus, i hope Zeus will look on you as kindly together I perform for picking out the best portion for a negative fellow favor me."Eumaeus 1: "Eat mine guest, strange man that friend are, and also take her pleasure of what is below now; the god will provide you together or withhold it, together in his own mind he may wish." (Homer, Odyssey 14.440).

"Servants, once their masters space no much longer there to order castle about, have little will to execute their duties together they should. All-seeing Zeus takes half the great out of a male on the day once he becomes a slave." (Eumaeus 1 to the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 17.320).


Eumaeus1 was Odysseus" faithful servant and swineherd, a male of sound principles, who never ever forgot the immortals. He received Odysseus in his hut once after his wanderings Odysseus returned to Ithaca, and also later he aided his grasp to get rid of the SUITORS the PENELOPE, that were pestering the palace.

Prince in another island

According come Eumaeus1 himself, he came initially from Syria, an island above Ortygia (Delos) whereby the residents lived a happy life, never ever spoiled by scourges, and always reaching Old Age. Over there Eumaeus1 led the life of a small prince, for his father was king the the island"s 2 cities, being looked after by a Phoenician nurse. His nurse betrays him come this island, states Eumaeus1, came at some point a gang of Phoenician seafarers with your ship stored with pretty commodities, and also one of them, having seduced the prince"s nurse, invited her come come v them ago to her country. She gladly accepted, including that she to plan to bring away every the gold the she might lay her hands on, and also as a means of paying for she passage home, she also offered to bring tiny Eumaeus1 top top board with her. For, she said, the tiny boy might fetch a fortune for them as soon as put up for sale in a international country. Offered in Ithaca The Phoenician traders remained for a totality year in the island of Syria, and also when they had bought your homeward freight and were prepared to sail, the nurse take it the gold and also the child and came on board. However, while lock still to be in the open up sea, the treacherous maid dropped sick and also died, and Eumaeus1 to be left alone until the delivery arrived come Ithaca whereby Odysseus" dad Laertes to buy him. This is just how Eumaeus1 involved Ithaca, and also as the was got in the home of a kind master, he loved Penelope, Telemachus, Odysseus, and also the whole of this family much more than his own. Because that he said:

"… ns shall never uncover so kind a understand again wherever I may go, not even if I return to my parents" residence … and much as I should like come be ago in mine own country and collection eyes on lock again, my longing for them has offered place in my heart to overwhelming regret for the shed Odysseus." (Eumaeus1 to the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.138).Brought up favor a son also Odysseus" mother Anticlia1 do a large place because that Eumaeus1 in she heart, bringing him up along with her own daughter Ctimene, till this girl was married to who in Same, in the island that Cephallenia. It was then that Anticlia1 fitted Eumaeus1 in new clothes, and also packed him off to the farm. Tough working swineherd having thus end up being the family"s swineherd, Eumaeus1 offered to take the animals to those pastures wherein they might find the right fodder, keeping the pigs at night in a big farmyard surrounded by high walls of stone, i beg your pardon he had actually himself built. And being a thorough sort of person, he fenced the entirety length the the walls with a stockade made of oak. Within the yard, i beg your pardon was also protected through fierce dogs, there to be twelve sties because that the pigs to rest; yet the boars, which at the time of Odysseus" return had been decimated through the SUITORS the PENELOPE, lay exterior the yard. They could at night be safeguarded by Eumaeus1 himself, who, covering in a thick cloak, invested the night outside, equipped with a sword and also a javelin to keep intruders away. Eumaeus1 offered to take it his meals and also rest in a cabin, and was otherwise helped by four laborers, one of which to be Mesaulius, who Eumaeus1 had actually bought from the Taphian traders with his very own resources. Pension scheme in jeopardy having lived hence for numerous years, and also being a loyal servant and also a hard worker, Eumaeus1 can hope to be pensioned off, and also receive from his understand Odysseus a same reward in the kind of a little of land, a cottage, and an attractive wife. Yet life not constantly runs smoothly, and the palace"s finances gift severely undermined by the SUITORS the PENELOPE, Eumaeus1 saw his future in jeopardy. And yet he was compelled to slaughter the finest animals and send them to these glutton scoundrels, who were never ever content with simply one or 2 at a time. And forced were as well the various other Ithacan herdsmen; for also them had actually to select day by work their ideal goat, and also drive the in for the SUITORS come guzzle on. So, gift disgusted through the whole state of work in Ithaca, Eumaeus1 had actually lived the current years as a hermit, simply with his swine, and never comes to the city and also the royal residence unless invited by Penelope. The SUITORS of PENELOPE currently the SUITORS were not simply unwanted guest consuming Odysseus" estate. This is indeed what they to be at the beginning. However later, as their outrageous habits met resistance native young Telemachus, castle turned gradually into a seditious group, plotting against the life that Odysseus" son, and also threatening to kill the king himself, if ever before he returned. Even if it is they to be or not completely aware of their escalation, which adjusted them native pestering youths right into criminals, turned come be irregularity for Odysseus and his very own people, who, at the moment of retaliation, mainly considered the after-effects of the SUITORS" actions. Receives his disguised master during the twentieth year of his absence, Odysseus came down on Ithaca. Disguised together an old beggar, and also following Athena"s instructions, the turned his earlier on the coast, and also going with woods and also hills, pertained to the hut the Eumaeus1. Over there he to be kindly obtained by the swineherd, who, there is no recognizing his master, invite the beggar to sign up with him in his meal, putting bread and also wine in prior of him, and also slaughtering a pair of young porkers because that the visitor"s sake. And when Odysseus thanked him, said Eumaeus1:

"… mine conscience would not let me revolve away a stranger that was even meaner 보다 you, for strangers and also beggars all come in Zeus" name …" (Eumaeus1 come the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.56).Beggar and swineherd tell stories to each other during the talk, Eumaeus1 called Odysseus" the story that his life, and Odysseus, that was still play the function of the beggar, told the what appeared to be a bunch of lies. However the swineherd was no unaware that the opportunity of his guest lying; because that he knew that:

"Beggars in require of sustenance phone call lies, and are do not want to offer a true story."(Eumaeus1 to the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.124).

This is why that is clear that his favors rested more, together he himself explained, top top the respect he had actually for the regulations of hospitality and also the pity the felt because that the stranger, than on stories intended to touch his heart. Telemachus sends out Eumaeus1 to the palace While Odysseus was staying at Eumaeus1"s house, his kid Telemachus went back from Pylos and Sparta, wherein he had actually been trying to find news about his father, disembarking in the island in ~ the an initial point that reached. His ship had just eluded the ambush that the SUITORS had collection out in ~ sea, and also when Telemachus, following Athena"s instructions, came to Eumaeus1"s hut, he sent the swineherd to go quickly and tell his mommy Penelope that she had actually him safely back from Pylos. And also when Eumaeus1 left the farm yard on his errand, Odysseus revealed self to his son; and also from that minute father and son began to setup the downfall and death of the SUITORS that PENELOPE. Eumaeus1 was not very first to deliver the message; for a messenger indigenous Telemachus" crew had been sent out running turn off to the palace, and also conveyed that first. However on his means back, having climbed up the hills over the city, Eumaeus1 experienced the SUITORS" ship that, without having achieved anything, came right into the harbor transporting a group of armed men. Around begging because that meals and also not for work-related The day after, as Odysseus and also his son had actually agreed, Telemachus bade Eumaeus1 to take it the beggar come the royal residence where he can beg because that his meals. In this manner, the swineherd brought his king, who looked choose a wretched old beggar, come the city. In their method they fell with the goatherd Melanthius2, who drove some goats because that the SUITORS, v two shepherds to aid him. And also when Melanthius2 saw the pair coming along, the burst into a torrent the injuries. For Melanthius2 to be the sort of guy fond the reproaching those who, together he said, always beg because that meals and never for work. No doubt, Melanthius2 would have been may be to offer that miserable wretch an occupation, so that he could work his muscles up, preventing him in ~ the same time the being such a killjoy at parties just by showing his nauseating presence. For such wastrels as this one never want to execute anything, yet instead love come walk around and make a living with alms. And having uttered these and other clever thoughts, he perfect his speech v the very same kind the elegance he had started that by landing a kick on Odysseus" hip together he pass by. Eumaeus1 curses the goatherd Now, this sort of cheap principles with i beg your pardon hypocrisy and fraud disguise themselves, to be just about nothing because that Eumaeus1, who might see v it. And also that is why he called upon the gods, cursed the goatherd, and prayed for Odysseus" return so the he would certainly send paris Melanthius2"s newly acquired insolent manners; for this goatherd cared in reality nothing because that Odysseus" herds, and also went about in the town leaving negative shepherds to destroy the king"s flocks. This sort of invocation have actually of course no result upon an impudent psychic such together Melanthius2"s; and that is why, on hear Eumaeus1"s speech, that retorted with an ext insults, including that he wished Telemachus" death, sure as he was the his father"s homecoming would never come about. And this said, that left to join the SUITORS, whom he admired and also with who he mutual the meals. The Suitor Antinous2 scolds the swineherd Eumaeus1 and Odysseus arrived to the royal residence soon after ~ the goatherd, and also he who had actually been wandering for twenty years started to go the rounds and beg from each of the SUITORS in his very own home. However beggars are not welcome amongst merry banqueters, and that is why these asked each various other who the was and also whence the came; and also when they learned indigenous the goatherd Melanthius2 that the swineherd had lugged him, the suitor Antinous2 took the opportunity to scold Eumaeus1, saying:

"O most identified swineherd, why walk you lug this other to the city? do we not currently have tramps in lot of to plague us and also ruin our dinners? room you dissatisfied through the numbers gathered here come eat your master"s food that you must invite this one also?" (Antinous2 to Eumaeus1. Homer, Odyssey 17.375).Who space invited and who not now Eumaeus1, who was adhering to Telemachus" instructions and also could not, in any case, have actually invited Odysseus, said with his very own words what is known of all:

"Who would certainly take that on himself to push hospitality top top a hike stranger, uneven he were some worker for the public good, a prophet, a physician, a expert workman, or inspired minstrel …? These are the males who anywhere the endless earth are invited. Yet nobody would certainly ask in a beggar to eat him out of house and also home." (Eumaeus1 come Antinous2. Homer, Odyssey 17.382).The beggar stays anyway despite the several disputes that the beggar"s visibility caused, Odysseus do a place for himself in the palace, and also it was Eumaeus1 who arranged a meeting in between the king and Penelope. Because that she, seeing the the stranger had traveled far, was anxious come ask that questions around her husband. The fateful bow appears On the 2nd day that Odysseus" arrival, Penelope decided to challenge the SUITORS with the bow that was claimed to test your skill, promising the she would marry whoever among them who showed to be the handiest in ~ stringing the bow and shooting the marks. Having actually then claimed this to the SUITORS, she called Eumaeus1 to hand end the bow come them. Eumaeus1 welcomed it in tears and also put it before the SUITORS, and likewise Philoetius wept when he experienced Odysseus" bow. For these faithful servants knew nothing yet of what your master had actually schemed v his son, also less the he to be alive and near. No one did they doubt that the figure of the bow signalled the downfall the the SUITORS, and also not, together it seemed to them, the definitive accept of Odysseus" death. Yet the suitor Antinous2 was no in a sentimental mood; and that is why the scolded both Eumaeus1 and also Philoetius, saying:

"You foolish yokels … negative wretches, why room you streaming tears, snivelling and upsetting her mistress, together though the lose of her beloved husband weren"t enough …" (Antinous2 to Eumaeus1 and also Philoetius. Homer, Odyssey 21.85).Difficult to bending on a vacation The SUITORS determined then to try the bow from left come right, the way the wine went round. The very first to do the attempt was Liodes, and also when he failed he said that this bow would break the heart and be the death of many; and also as that happens, reality may come the end of any mouth. Then the rest of the SUITORS bespeak Melanthius2 come grease and thaw the bow before they do the efforts it, and also when likewise Eurymachus2 failed, Antinous2 proposed to postpone the test. For this day, being the holiday of the archer god Apollo, was no time, the argued, to bending bows. Odysseus reveals himself to the swineherd and also the cowman In the meantime, Eumaeus1 and the cowman Philoetius slipped out of the palace, and also Odysseus followed them. Having called them the end ,the king tested their loyalty, and also when he to be reassured of your feelings he revealed self to them, showing his famed scar. Then, after ~ explaining his plan and also instructing them, the told castle to go back to the palace. Argument about the bow when the 3 came back, Odysseus request the SUITORS to let him test the bow, not to victory the lady, yet for the sake of testing. This was, as the SUITORS experienced it, a preposterous idea, and also it to be evidently wine without moderation, castle said, what had caused the beggar to shed all feeling of proportion, making him great to contend with his betters. Queen Penelope reproached climate the SUITORS for the meanness they proved to all who involved her house, however Telemachus, placing an end to the argument, said:

"My mother, no Achaean guy has more authority over this bow 보다 I, to offer or withhold, at my pleasure." (Telemachus come Penelope. Homer, Odyssey 21.344).Eumaeus1 compelled to pick In the meanwhile Eumaeus1, complying with the instructions the Odysseus had given him moments back outside the palace, choose up the bow and also was acquisition it follow me to offer it come his master. However suddenly the SUITORS experienced him and yelled in ~ him:

"Where are you acquisition the bow, wretched swineherd and vagabond? If we could have our way, the really dogs you have actually bred would certainly tear you to pieces, out there among your pigs were no one goes." (The SUITORS come Eumaeus1. Homer, Odyssey 21.362).

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And together servants room not offered to protest noblemen, Eumaeus1, frightened by the crowd of angry young men, placed the bow ago where it had been. However, Telemachus would certainly not permit now any hesitations, and also forcing the swineherd to select sides, that threatened:

"Forward there through the bow, old fellow! You"ll soon discover that girlfriend can"t obey united state all. Take care I don"t follow you up the areas with a shower head of stones." (Telemachus to Eumaeus1. Homer, Odyssey 21.369).End of the SUITORS The SUITORS, that were much more aware that the entertaining value of points than of your meaning, laughed every they can at Telemachus" outburst, disregarding the fact that now the swineherd was no obeying them any type of more, however instead, doing together Telemachus had demanded, carried the bow under the room to Odysseus. This is exactly how Odysseus received the bow, and also stringing it without initiative he shot all the marks. And without wasting any type of time, the went for another target and shot the suitor Antinous2 dead. The SUITORS, still deluded, believed that he had killed their friend by accident, but Odysseus, revealing himself and also refusing all commitment with his enemies, started shooting at the remainder of them. In the fight that ensued, no one amongst the SUITORS survived, and it to be Eumaeus1 that, having spied the goatherd Melanthius2 once he saw the store-room to fetch a fill of armour because that the SUITORS, impede him to fetch them, tying him v a rope. Once the battle was over, Odysseus asked his nurse Euryclia which amongst the fifty women-servants in the palace had been disloyal. These were ordered come clean the battlefield, removed the bodies of the slain and also washing tables and chairs. And when the entirety house to be again in order, Telemachus, Philoetius and Eumaeus1 take it the ladies who had betrayed your king come the courtyard, and hanged them. And also they additionally killed the disloyal servant and goatherd Melanthius2, after ~ slicing his nose and ears off, ripping far his privy components as raw meat because that the dogs, and also lopping off his hands and feet. Epilogue This is what has been told about Eumaeus1, ~ above whom flexibility was bestowed once Telemachus rule Ithaca. His death has never ever been reported.Eumaeus2 to be a Trojan warrior who fell at Troy killed by Diomedes2.