Caramelization or caramelisation (see order differences) is the oxidation that sugar, a procedure used broadly in food preparation for the result nutty flavor and brown color. Caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning reaction. Together the procedure occurs, volatile chemicals are released creating the characteristics caramel flavor. The reaction involves the remove of water (as steam) and also the break down of the sugar. The caramelization reaction depends on the type of sugar. Sucrose and also glucose caramelize about 160C (320F) and also fructose caramelizes in ~ 110C (230F).

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Caramelized sugar

Caramelization temperatures?

If friend looked at ice cream under a microscope, friend would watch see ice cream crystals, fat droplets, and air pockets distributed in liquid. This foamy mixture that liquid, solid, and also air is an essential to ice cream cream’s flavor and consistency.

To assist keep this foamy microscope structure, ice cream includes chemical ingredients referred to as “thickening agents.” These are designed to assist foam stay foamy.

Fructose 110° C, 230° F
Galactose 160° C, 320° F
Glucose 160° C, 320° F
Lactose 203° C, 397° F
Sucrose 160° C, 320° F

The greatest rate that the color advancement is led to by furustos as caramelization of furustos starts at 110C. Baked goods made from honey or fructose syrup will because of this give a darker color.

Caramelization the sucrose starts through the melt of the street at high temperature (see below) followed by foaming (boiling). Sucrose an initial decomposes into glucose and fructose. This is followed by a condensation step, in i m sorry the individual sugars lose water and also react through each other. Hundreds of new aromatic compounds are created having a variety of complicated flavors.

In the situation of the caramelization the sucrose three key product groups are formed: a dehydration product, caramelan C12H18O9; and two polymers, carmelen C36H50O25 and caramelin The average molecular formula for caramelin C125H188O80.

Caramelization Products: 2C12H22O11 = 4H20 C24H36O18 Caramelan 3C12H22O11 =Caramelization continues to it is in a poorly understood process Here is one overview: equilibration of anomeric and ring develops sucrose inversion come fructose and glucose condensation intramolecular bonding isomerization the aldoses to ketoses dehydration reaction fragmentation reactions unsaturated polymer formation 8H20 C36H50O25 Caramelen ongoing heating returns caramelin C125H188O80

Caramelization proceeds to be a poorly understood procedure Here is one overview:

equilibration the anomeric and ring forms  sucrose inversion come fructose and glucose  condensation  intramolecular bonding  isomerization the aldoses come ketoses  dehydration reactions  fragmentation reactions  unsaturated polymer formation 

Flavors that Caramel:

Diacetyl ( 2,3-butanedione) is vital flavour compound, created during the first stages of caramelization. Diacetyl is greatly responsible because that a buttery or butterscotch flavour.

Esters and also lactones which have a sweet rum like flavor.

Furans which have a nutty flavor.

Maltol has a toasty flavor.

If carmelization is permitted to continue to far the taste the the mixture will end up being less sweet together the initial sugar is destroyed. Ultimately the smell will rotate bitter. 

NOTE: Caramelization should not be puzzled with the Maillard reaction, in i beg your pardon reducing sugar reacts v amino acids.


Caramelized Carrots

Carrots have actually a higher natural sugar content than all other vegetables with the exemption of beets. In the photo above the high street content produced a highly caramelized surface. Carrots room high in glucose, fructose and also sucrose (depending on the breed of carrot) which encourage caramelization. In the instance of carrots the reaction actually consists of both caramelization commodities and Maillard reaction products due to the fact that vegetables also contain amino acids in addition to reducing sugars. (Note: sucrose is not a reducing sugars).

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Caramelized Scallops


Scallops cooking in a actors iron pan produced excellent caramelization since of high heat retention. Together in the instance of carrots both caramelization and also products of the Maillard Reaction space produced.