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John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont, sculpture from a daguerreotype by Mathew Brady, c. 1850.
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Meanwhile, basic Stephen watts Kearny entered California native the southeast v orders to create a government. This resulted in a problem of government in i m sorry Frémont involved himself after agree California’s capitulation from mexican officials at Cahuenga Pass, close to Los Angeles. Stockton had appointed Frémont armed forces governor the California, but Kearny would not recognize the appointment. Frémont nevertheless served as governor for two months, in ~ which time Kearny had him arrested after having actually received confirmation of his own authority. Frémont was returned to Washington, D.C., and, in 1847–48, court-martialed for mutiny, disobedience, and conduct prejudicial to armed forces discipline. He to be sentenced come dismissal from the army. Although his penalty was set aside by president James K. Polk, Frémont, bitter around the ordeal, resigned native the army. Through it every he kept the high to the of the basic public.

Frémont changed west come California come an legacy he had purchased in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Mariposa, just to uncover himself in the midst of the California gold Rush. After wealthy ore veins were discovered on his land, he came to be a multimillionaire. In 1850, following California’s admittance to the union, the was elected one that the state’s first two senators. A firm adversary of slavery, he lost a reelection bid in 1851 to a pro-slavery candidate. However, his popular in help to secure California for the country and the publicity generated by yet one more expedition—to Utah are in 1853–54—led to him gift nominated because that the presidency in 1856 by the new Republican Party. In the election he was beat by the autonomous candidate, James Buchanan, yet came closer come uniting the electorate of the North and West versus the south than had any kind of previous candidate.


Frémont to be appointed a major general the Union troops in Missouri after the American Civil war began, but he proved to it is in an ineffective leader. Further, in respectable 1861 that ordered the confiscation the the property of Missourians in rebellion and also the emancipation the the state’s slaves. President Abraham Lincoln, believing those plot to it is in premature and fearing that they would alienate border states, relieved Frémont that his command quickly thereafter. The next year Frémont was provided leadership of one more army—this time in the Appalachian region—but he showed ineffective versus the fast maneuvers of his opponent, the Confederate basic Thomas (“Stonewall”) Jackson. After losing command of his army to a rival, man Pope, Frémont again angrily resigned native the military. He was still popular sufficient to be taken into consideration for the presidential nomination again in 1864 through the radical wing of the Republican Party. He i was withdrawn his candidacy, however, to avoid splitting the party, due to the fact that that most likely would have resulted in the defeat of Lincoln. Thereafter he retired from publicly life to dedicate himself to railroad tasks in the West. In 1878, after losing his fortune, he was appointed branch of the Arizona Territory, whereby he served until 1883.

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This write-up was many recently revised and also updated by Kenneth Pletcher, an elderly Editor.