The social structure of ancient Egypt have the right to be sorted right into a society pyramid. At the height of the social pyramid was the pharaoh v the government officials, nobles and priests below him/her. The third tier consisted of the scribes and also soldiers with the middle class in the 4th level. Peasants to be the fifth tier of culture with slaves comprising the lowest social class.

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Ancient Egypt"s social Pyramid

The PharaohPriests and also nobles (who offer as lesser federal government officials)Soldiers and scribes (who create down essential events and also calculate taxes)Craftsmen and also merchantsFarmers and unskilled workersSlaves

Often, civilization from a solitary level would live in the same area of a city. The levels of the pyramid could transition and separation, personal, instance tiers were more powerful at various times.


Duties of each Level


The Pharaoh

The Pharaoh to be a god top top earth and also the ultimate authority in Egypt. It was his/her duty to make the law and also maintain order in the Kingdom. The civilization expected the pharaoh to keep the gods happy therefore the Nile would certainly flood and there would certainly be a great harvest. S/he had to maintain the army to protect the country from outside threats and also internal difficulties. The people looked come the pharaoh to ensure their well-being and also when s/he did no live up to this expectation s/he had actually less power. The Pharaoh owned all the soil in Egypt yet he could gift land come other civilization as presents or to award them.

Government Officials

Government officials contained members of the imperial family, nobles and also priests. The royal family consisted of the initial members of the government, the highest possible position the which to be the vizier. Over time, the royal family members left federal government positions, leaving the noble to to fill them. In ~ first, the pharaoh appointed all federal government positions however soon they ended up being hereditary.

The vizier to be the pharaoh’s second-in-command and sometimes offered as High Priest the Amun-Ra. He looked after the political management and all official documents had to have actually his seal on them. The vizier regulated the taxes system and also monitored the supply of food. The listened come problems in between nobles and cleared up them. The vizier additionally ran the pharaoh’s household and ensured the imperial family’s safety.


Priests offered the gods’ requirements and, in ~ times, the power of the High priest of Amun-Ra rivaled pharaoh’s. Pharaoh appointed the priests throughout early periods however later the posts became hereditary. They spent their time conducting rituals and ceremonies, in pharaoh’s name, in holy places to store the god happy. Priests were a component of old Egypt"s everyday life and they looked after the running of the temple community.

Nobles were the just group, next to the imperial family, who can hold a federal government office. Lock ruled the nomes (regions the Egypt), made neighborhood laws and maintained order. Nobles likewise owned farm land which the peasant class worked for them.


Scribes and Soldiers

Scribes, part of the third level the the pyramid, were some of the only people in Egypt who might read and write. They kept the records of the country including the quantity of food produced and gifts gift to the gods. Scribes also kept records of the variety of soldiers in the army and the number of workers on construction sites. They likewise wrote the copies of the publication of the Dead and biographies uncovered in ancient Egyptian tombs.


Soldiers protected Egypt from exterior attacks and ended society uprisings. In ~ times, they additionally oversaw the shortest classes once they built the pyramids. Second sons would often join the military because they got wealth. They might get booty indigenous battles and also the pharaoh could reward them v land for your service.


The center Class: Craftsmen and Merchants

The middle course consisted the craftsmen, merchants and also other professional workers such together doctors. Merchants sold the products made by craftsmen and doctors treated injuries. Craftsmen or artisans included carpenters, jewelers, metalworkers, painters, potters, sculptors, stone carvers and weavers. Women can work in few of the crafts, such together weaving. Craftsmen frequently worked in workshops with other artisans the the exact same type.


Peasants to be the farmers, servants and also constructions workers. The government employed building workers who developed royal structures like pyramids and also palaces. Servants worked in the homes of the higher levels of society cleaning, do food, and completing various other tasks.

Farmers to be the many important component of the culture because they elevated the food the fed old Egypt. Pharaoh, or the nobles they operated for, detailed them with food and clothing. This was an exchange for their cultivation of royal or noble land. Farmers lived in small, mud-brick houses and could rental land in exchange because that a portion of the crops from nobles or the Pharaoh.



At the bottom of ancient Egypt"s social structure were the slaves. Egypt go not have slave markets. Most of the time, the ancient Egyptians obtained slaves as prisoners-of-war. Slaves functioned in the homes of the nobles, in the royal palace and also in the temples. They likewise mined and quarried rock and valuable materials. None of the records uncovered to day say that servant labor developed the pyramids that Giza, regardless of myths claiming castle did.

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Quick Facts

The Pharaoh was the can be fried authority in Egypt. The human being held the pharaoh responsible for their well-being.Government officials assisted ensure the the nation ran well.Priests looked after the temples and the rituals and ceremonies to respect the gods.Scribes tape-recorded the occasions of the kingdom.Soldiers protected the kingdom from armed forces threats.The middle class made handmade items because that the various other classes and also sold them.Farmers thrived the food that sustained the whole kingdom.Slaves to be prisoners-of-war who operated in houses, mines or quarries.