By the finish of this section, friend will:Explain the context for the colonization of north America native 1607 come 1754

Introduction

The sixteenth-century lugged changes in Europe that helped reshape the whole Atlantic human being of Europe, Africa, and the Americas. These events were the increase of country states, the splintering that the Christian church into Catholic and also Protestant sects, and also a fierce compete for global commerce. Spain aggressively protected its phibìc American territorial claims against imperial rivals, because that example. Once French protestant Huguenots created Fort Caroline (Jacksonville, Florida, today) in 1564, Spain attacked and also killed the settlers the following year. France, Britain, and Holland want their very own American colonies, and also privateers indigenous these countries used for sure havens follow me the coastline of north America come raid Spanish endowment ships. However North America walk not organize the gold and silver uncovered in Spanish possessions in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Peru. In the end, Spain concentrated on this more rewarding portions of its empire, and other European nation states started to develop their own claims in phibìc America.

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Europe’s political, religious, and also economic rivalries were dealt with in both europe wars and also in a struggle for colonies throughout the Atlantic. Brothers Queen Elizabeth I sustained Protestant revolts in Catholic France and also the Spanish Netherlands, which put her at odds v Spain’s Catholic monarch, Philip II. For this reason did her assistance for English privateers such as Sir Frances Drake, teacher George Summers, and also Captain Christopher Newport, who preyed ~ above Spanish sweetheart ships and also commerce. In 1584, Elizabeth ignored the Spanish case to all of North America and also issued a royal charter to sir Walter Raleigh, encouraging him and also a group of investor to explore, colonize, and also rule the continent.

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Sixteenth-century Europe was identified by the climb of nation-states and also the division of Christianity because of the protestant Reformation. Raised competition because that wealth fueled by both developments spilled over into the brand-new World, and by the beforehand seventeenth century, Spain, Portugal, England, France, and also the Netherlands all had a existence in north America.

England, France, and also the Netherlands

By 1600, the stage had been collection for competition between the European nations colonizing the Americas, and several quickly created footholds. The Spanish started St. Augustine (in what is currently Florida) in 1565. In 1607, English adventurers arrived on Jamestown in the Virginia nest (see The English come to America Narrative).

The French created Quebec in what today is Canada, in 1608. Spanish Santa Fe (in what is now new Mexico) was started in 1610. The Dutch established Albany (now the funding of brand-new York) as a trading facility on the Hudson flow in 1614, and new Amsterdam (called brand-new York City today) in 1624. English Separatists, now known as Pilgrims, established Plymouth nest in 1620. Ten years later, in 1630, Puritans developed the Massachusetts just Colony. European settlement prospered exponentially. Seventeenth-century phibìc America became a place where diverse nations—European and Native American—came into close contact.

By the 1650s, the English, French, and Dutch to be well established in phibìc America. French traders used the waterways to move ever before deeper into the internal of the continent from their toehold in Quebec, trading with American Indians. French Jesuit priests lived peacefully with American Indians, learned their languages, videotaped their society norms and also customs, and also worked to transform them come Christianity. Europeans traded imported products to American Indians for beaver and also other furs that carried high profits in Europe (see The fur Trade Narrative). The American Indians’ economy and also culture, and also relationships with other native tribes, were readjusted by their brand-new focus ~ above the hair trade and also by the metal tools and firearms the europe offered. By the mid-1700s, the French had asserted the St. Lawrence river Valley, the great Lakes region, and also the totality of the Mississippi river Valley.

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The Dutch cleared up the Hudson river Valley and established new Amsterdam. They began with a fur-trading site developed in 1614 near what is today Albany, brand-new York. It prospered steadily throughout the following several decades, and historians estimate that by the 1660s, about nine thousand world inhabited the netherlands colony.

Britain’s settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, which started as an entrepreneurial joint-stock company, struggled initially. Investors in the Virginia agency of London sent out settlers v supplies and instructions to discover rewarding commodities because that trade. Lock were additionally to search for the legend Northwest i to Asia and also its rewarding trade. Gold, that course, was at the peak of the Virginia this firm list, however precious metals and also jewels eluded the settlers. There to be a variety of schemes for making money, yet it was not till 1617, as soon as John Rolfe exported his an initial four barrels that Orinoco tobacco—a sweet-scented range he derived from the Caribbean and also planted in Virginia—that the Virginia economic situation took off. By 1619, inhabitants were enjoying personal property rights and had elected the residence of Burgesses, the first representative assembly in the new World. Tobacco drove the Virginia economic climate until the twentieth century. A land- and labor-intensive crop, tobacco led the inhabitants to spread out out and establish isolated plantations where indentured servants and also later servants toiled.

Watch this BRI Homework Help video on The colonization of America for a testimonial of the differences among the European nests in the brand-new World.

Trade

Native nations in phibìc America search the advantages of trade and also the aid of europe allies to respond to their enemies. But they likewise strove come control and resist the growing European existence on your land, utilizing both diplomacy and military strikes. Throughout the winter of 1609–1610, for example, Powhatan, one Algonquin chief and the dad of Pocahontas, stopped trading with and also providing food to the jamestown settlers. His warriors laid siege to Jamestown and killed all who left the fort. Throughout that winter, defined by Englishmen as the “starving time,” Powhatan came close to finishing the colony’s existence. Indians again waged war in the second Anglo-Powhatan battle of 1622 and the 3rd Anglo-Powhatan war of 1644, but by that time, the English visibility in Virginia to be too solid to resist (see The Anglo-Powhatan war of 1622 Narrative).

In the brand-new Amsterdam and new England regions, Dutch and also English traders want to regulate the profitable fur trade. Therefore did American Indian groups. The Pequot began expanding their affect in the 1630s, pushing out the Wampanoag to your north, the Narragansett to the east, and also the Algonquians and Mohegan come the west. But they additionally came into conflict with the English of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and also Connecticut colonies. Tensions concerned a head in the Pequot war of 1637, when the Pequots challenged an alliance of europe colonists and the Narragansett and also Mohegan Indians. The conflict ended in disaster for the Pequot: The survivors of the beat tribe were provided to their Narragansett and Mohegan enemies or shipped to the Bahamas and also West Indies together slaves.

In these and also other conflicts, American Indian nations and European countries competed among themselves and also with each other for land, trade, and also dominance. In the end, however, Europeans preserved arriving and growing in numbers. Even much more devastating was the American Indians had actually no immune to European diseases like measles and smallpox, which resulted in 90 percent mortality rates in some areas. Epidemics spread across North America while europe steadily thrust American ind farther west.

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This sixteenth-century Aztec drawing shows the enduring of a typical victim that smallpox. Smallpox and also other transmittable diseases lugged by europe explorers decimated indigenous populations in the Americas.

Slavery

Enslavement of africans was introduced at an early stage in the settlement of the Americas. In the at an early stage 1500s, Spain imported enslaved afri to the Caribbean to satisfy the high demand for labor. The dutch played a an essential role in the Atlantic servant trade till the 1680s, when the English gained control and allowed colonial shippers come participate. The Atlantic slave trade had transporting captives from the west coastline of Africa come the ameri in what came to be known as the “Middle Passage.” The center Passage was one foot of a profitable triangular trade in the Atlantic. Pearl transported raw products from the ameri to Europe and then shipped manufactured goods and alcohol come Africa, whereby they were used to purchase people from the West Africans. Ships’ captains packed their human cargo the chained african men, women, and also children into the stop of the ships, where about 10 to 15 percent died.

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Slaves were literal cargo on board ships in the center Passage, as this cross-section of the British slave ship Brookes shows. Ships’ decks were designed to carry commodities, yet during the Atlantic slave trade, person beings ended up being the cargo. This illustration the a slave ship to be made in the so late eighteenth century, ~ the American Revolution.

Despite high mortality rates, seller financiers and slave-ship captains made significant profits. An ext than ten million afri were forcibly carried to the Americas throughout the three-century–long period of the slave trade. Many were destined because that Brazil or the West Indies. About 5 percent that the African servant trade checked out British phibìc America.

The an initial Africans in British north America arrived on Jamestown plank a Dutch ship in 1619. Historians are not details about your initial status—whether they to be indentured servants or slaves. What is clear, however, is that over time, a few gained freedom and owned property, consisting of slaves. During the next several decades, legislations governing and also formalizing the racial and also hereditary servant system progressively developed. Through the finish of the seventeenth century, every colony in north America had a slave code—a set of laws defining the standing of enslaved persons.

In Maryland and Virginia, enslaved persons noted labor for the tobacco fields. Furthermore south, in the Carolinas, indigo and also rice were the cash crops. A southern plantation system occurred that enabled wealthy landowners to control many slaves who cultivated substantial land holdings. Most whites were not huge landowners, however. Many small farmers, businessmen, and tradesmen organized one or 2 slaves, if others had actually none. Some paid a grasp for a slave’s labor in a system well-known as hiring out. Through 1750, nearly 25% that the population in the British colonies was enslaved. In Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina, the percentages were greater than in the North. In those southern colonies, slaves accounted for almost half the population. In southern Carolina, virtually two-thirds of the populace were slaves.

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In this 1670 painting by an unknown artist, slaves work in tobacco-drying sheds.

No one escaped the brutality that the slave system. Ownership of an additional human being together chattel property—like a equine or a cow—was often implemented by violence, and violence was always at hand, despite masters also detailed a variety of incentives such as time turn off or small gifts at Christmas. Masters and also overseers provided physical and mental coercion to preserve control. The whip was an ever-present threat and used through horrific results. A understand was no faulted or legally punished because that killing a rebellious slave. But perhaps among the most powerful threats to be the auction block, whereby fathers, sons, daughters, and mothers could be sold away indigenous family. The kids of enslaved mother inherited the condition and also were born into a life that servitude. Under the law, castle were home a master might dispose of as he saw fit.

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In this 1670 paint by an unknown artist, slaves work-related in tobacco-drying sheds.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, many runaway slaves had no location to go. Before the American Revolution, some southern servants ran away to Spanish Florida, but every British colony enforced slavery and slave laws, even as a few individuals and groups denounced the brutality that slavery and the slave trade (see the Germantown Friends’ Antislavery Petition, 1688 main Source). Human being of african descent can be arrested without reason anywhere they were strangers or unknown through the community. Even the couple of free blacks (probably no much more than 0.5 percent that the afri American population in 1750) remained close to communities where they were known, where significant whites vouched for their totally free status. Law, society, and custom all suppressed the an essential rights that blacks. This system, implemented by fear and also violence, spawned revolts. Some were small; individuals ran away, broke tools, or damaged crops. Various other revolts were bigger and much more violent, choose the1739 Stono Rebellion in southern Carolina (see The Stono Rebellion Narrative).

Watch this BRI Homework Help video on the advancement of slavery in phibìc America because that a evaluation of the main principles covered in this section.

Religion

In 1620, a group of English separatists recognized as the Pilgrims settled at what this particular day is well-known as Cape ko Bay. The Pilgrims were “separatists” because they believed the good news Church of England continued to be too close come Catholic doctrine, and they observed no various other solution however to leaving or separate from the church. Since they dissented native the created state church, they were persecuted, and they made decision to leave England (see the Pilgrims to the brand-new World Decision Point). The Pilgrims used to the Virginia agency of London in 1619 and received a patent to work out at the mouth of the Hudson River. Once they got to North America, bad sailing conditions and treacherous waters compelled them to work out at Cape Cod only instead, wherein they established the swarm they referred to as Plymouth.

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This 1805 painting by Michele Felice Corne depicts the landing that the Pilgrims in the winter the 1620. Note how the artist assumes the American Indians to be watching the landing party.

In 1628, an additional group of English religious dissenters arrived in surrounding Massachusetts just and settled there on behalf of the Massachusetts only Company. Choose the Pilgrims who settled in Plymouth, these brand-new emigrants thought the Church the England was as well Catholic in that is practices, however instead that separating, these migrants, well-known as Puritans, sought to purify or reform the Church native within. They hope to establish a “city ~ above a hill,” as among their leaders, man Winthrop, defined it—a shining example to their brethren in England that a good and Godly neighborhood (see the A City ~ above a Hill: Winthrop’s “Modell of Christian Charity,” 1630 main Source).

Puritans involved America in part for the liberty to exercise their faith as they observed fit. Therefore, they imposed a strict spiritual orthodoxy in Massachusetts and Connecticut. When Roger Williams promoted a separation between church and government and preached freedom of conscience, that was compelled to flee Massachusetts. In 1636, he established Providence, Rhode Island, which ended up being a haven for Protestant religious dissenters. Anne Hutchinson challenged the established Massachusetts Bay clergy on doctrine, an act all the much more presumptuous comes from a woman. Banished from the colony, she seek refuge in Rhode Island (see the ann Hutchinson and spiritual Dissent Narrative).

Puritan culture was take it in other methods as well. In the 1690s, a group of teenage girls accused members the the ar of Salem (today Danvers, Massachusetts) the consorting v the Devil, beginning a duration of mass hysteria recognized as the Salem witch trials, during which several occupants were executed. The components that resulted in the flurry of accusations were facility and might have had a id in superordinary forces, England’s regulate over brand-new England, and economic tensions that made the accusations believable. The hysteria finished only once town leader themselves to be charged through witchcraft and also turned against the accusers, top the newly appointed imperial governor to explain the trials end (see The Salem Witch Trials Narrative).

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Guidebooks because that identifying witches were typical in Europe and also the nests during the 1600s. This book, entitled cases of Conscience worrying evil soul Personating Men, Witchcrafts, infallible Proofs that Guilt in such as room accused with that Crime. All considered according to the Scriptures, History, Experience, and the referee of countless Learned men, was written by rise Mather, president of Harvard College and Puritan minister, in 1693.

Religion to be a specifying feature of other North American settlements as well. Cecil Calvert, lord Baltimore, was an English noble and a roman Catholic. He obtained a charter native King Charles ns of England permitting him to create the Maryland proprietary colony and giving him and also his family members full manage of it. Mr Baltimore established Maryland on spiritual toleration and detailed a for sure haven for English Catholics. The an initial colonists arrived in 1634 and settled at St. Mary’s City. In spite of the colony’s 1649 Toleration Act, however, religious tolerance to be short-lived. In the 1650s, in the wake of the English civil Wars, a good news council ruled the colony and also persecuted roman Catholics (see The founding of Maryland Narrative).

The American colonies offered a variety of spiritual experiences, including spiritual freedom, religious toleration, and also established churches.
Colony (Date the Founding)Reason because that FoundingReligion
Plymouth (1620)Religious freedomProtestant: Separatists or Pilgrims who believed the Church of England was so beyond saving they need to separate native it. Later, Plymouth linked with Massachusetts bay Colony.
Massachusetts just (1629)Religious freedomProtestant: Puritans who wanted to revolutionary or wash the Church of England native within, quite than separate from it like the Separatists or Pilgrims.
Maryland (1633)Religious toleration for ChristiansFounded as a haven for roman inn Catholics: The Toleration plot (1649) called for spiritual toleration of every Christians. However, after the Glorious change later in the seventeenth century, Catholics were persecuted and also the Church the England was established as the state-sanctioned religion in the colony.
Connecticut (1636)Religious differences with Puritans in MassachusettsProtestant: Puritans
Rhode Island (1636)Religious distinctions with Puritans in MassachusettsProtestant: Puritans
Pennsylvania (1682)Religious freedomProtestant: Quakers; noted for limited government and complete freedom of conscience

William Penn got a approve of phibìc American land indigenous King Charles II and also founded the nest of Pennsylvania in 1681 as a haven for Quakers like himself (see the william Penn and also the founding of Pennsylvania Narrative). Quakers were another Protestant team that frequently clashed through the Church the England; Penn had been imprisoned for a time in the Tower of London because that his religious views. He experienced his property of Pennsylvania together an possibility to provide a refuge because that Quakers and also others persecuted for your beliefs: a “holy experiment” (see the Penn’s Letter Recruiting colonists 1683 main Source). The colony practiced spiritual toleration welcome those of various other faiths. Pen pledged to maintain just relations with American Indians and also purchased land indigenous the Lenape nation.

Penn likewise intended for the colony to it is in prosperous, v a diverse populace specializing in a vast array the occupations. By the mid-1700s, Philadelphia was one of North America’s most prosperous and also rapidly farming trading ports.

As colonies prospered and their populaces grew, younger generations came to be increasingly secular, leading to tensions with classic established churches. In between the 1730s and 1740s, a tide of religious revivalism known as the an excellent Awakening swept over the colonies and Europe (see The good Awakening Narrative). Church services throughout this renewal were defined by passionate evangelicalism expected to evoke an emotional spiritual conversion. The good Awakening was opposed come the rationalism that the Enlightenment and questioned traditional religious authority. Historians proceed to controversy the tradition of this period of spiritual and cultural upheaval (see the What was the an excellent Awakening? Point-Counterpoint).

The British take it Control

In the so late 1600s and early 1700s, the british consolidated their regulate over the eastern seaboard of phibìc America. Throughout the duration 1675 to 1676 brand-new England fought versus the Wampanoag and their allies in what was called King Philip’s War. The conflict resulted in staggeringly high casualties on both sides and the physical development of nests in new England. It helped convince the English government to revoke the Massachusetts charter and establish greater control over the swarm (see the King Philip’s war Decision point and the Maps reflecting the advancement of negotiation 1624–1755 main Source).

Some conflicts occurred between the colonists and royal colonial administrations when officials prevented inhabitants from broadening into American Indians’ soil or failed to defend the settlers when they did. In 1676, western homesteaders were alarm by a series of attacks by American Indians, and also even much more by the perception that governor William Berkeley’s federal government in james town was doing small to protect them. Nathaniel Bacon demanded a armed forces commission to campaign against the Indians, but Berkeley refused. The refusal prompted Bacon and his followers—including little planters indentured servants and also even slaves—to take it up arms in defiance the the governor. Ultimately, the rebellion collapsed, and also the English crown sent troops to Virginia to reestablish order. White farmer on smaller farms won taxes relief and an expanded suffrage. With better economic conditions in England, fewer human being migrated as indentured servants enhancing the need for enslaved people (see the Bacon’s Rebellion Narrative and also the Bacon vs. Berkeley on Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 primary Source).

European countries sought to control the circulation of goods and materials in between them and their swarms in a system referred to as mercantilism. Mercantilism held that the quantity of wealth in the world was fixed and also best measure in gold and silver bullion. To obtain power, nations had to amass riches by mining these precious raw products or maintaining a “favorable” balance of trade. Mercantilist nations established swarms as a source of raw materials and trade to enrich the mommy country and as a customer of manufactures from the mommy country. The mercantilist nations established monopolies over the trade and also regulated your colonies. For example, the British and also colonial profession in life materials and also manufactured goods was intended to travel v British ports on brother ships. The result was a closely held and also extremely lucrative trading network that sustained the brother Empire. Conference passed a collection of laws dubbed the navigating Acts in the middle of the ten century to prevent other nations from benefiting indigenous English royal trade through its north American colonies.

In the mid-1600s, the English visited war with the competing Dutch empire for control in phibìc America. The English seized brand-new Amsterdam in 1664 throughout the second Anglo-Dutch War. King Charles II provided it come his brother, the battle each other of York, as a proprietorship, and the nest was renamed new York in the Duke’s honor, therefore eliminating the dutch toehold in north America. Through the 1700s, therefore, over there were only two major European strength in north America: Britain and also France.

During the beforehand eighteenth century, the French prolonged their influence from contemporary Canada down the St. Lawrence flow Valley v the an excellent Lakes and also into the Mississippi and Ohio flow Valleys. By 1750, French influence expanded all the method down the Mississippi come Louisiana. Tensions to be high together rivalry between France and great Britain played out versus the background of the north American frontier (see the Albany arrangement of Union Narrative).

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European settlements in 1750 prior to the French and also Indian War. (credit: “Map of north America in 1750” by invoice of legal rights Institute/Flickr CC by 4.0)

War v France

By 1750, both Britain and also France asserted the Ohio flow Valley. In 1753, the French started building a collection of forts there on land asserted by brothers land carriers such as the Ohio agency and the faithful Company. Virginia’s lieutenant governor, Robert Dinwiddie, an investor in the Ohio company sent a young Virginia militia major named George Washington come the Ohio country to warn the French come leave. Lock refused.

By the spring of 1754, the French to be building one more fort at the confluence the the Allegheny, Monongahela, and also Ohio Rivers (the website of contemporary Pittsburgh). Governor Dinwiddie sent major Washington back with a contingent of troops. This time, Washington assaulted the French and also their Indian allies, then moved his force to ft Necessity. Surrounding there by French, Shawnee, and Delaware fighters, that surrendered ~ a brief battle on July 4, 1754. This event sparked the Seven Years’ War—or the “French and also Indian War,” together it was recognized in America (see the Washington’s Journal: explorations to questioned Ohio are 1753–1754 primary Source).

The seven Years’ battle was mainly fought in Europe and North America, but engagements likewise occurred roughly the human being (see the A Clash that Empires: The French and Indian battle Narrative). In phibìc America, American Indians ongoing their complex foreign policy, allying themselves in means they hope would allow them to dominate trade in your region. Numerous tribes sided through the French, however the Iroquois Confederacy and also Catawba fought with the British. When British and also colonial troops under the command of basic Edward Braddock fail to catch Fort Duquesne, other forces moved northward and also westward from brand-new York to shot to capture key French fortifications.

The campaign was a catastrophe for Britain. Yet in 1759, the British captured Fort Ticonderoga ~ above Lake Champlain and also then beat the French in ~ Quebec and Fort Niagara. The following year, in Montreal, governor Vaudreuil negotiated terms v British basic Jeffery Amherst and surrendered. In 1763, France and also Britain signed the contract of Paris, finishing the French and Indian War and giving Britain control of every one of North America east of the Mississippi River and also of Canada. France to be expelled from north America, and also British colonists celebrated their victory. Never ever did these homesteaders feel an ext patriotic towards king and also country. One factor was the they supposed an possibility to press farther westward together a an outcome of your success in battle (see the Wolfe in ~ Quebec and also the peace of 1763 Narrative).

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These 2 maps display land holdings before (left) and after (right) the 7 Years’ War. What changes and also continuities execute you watch in the balance of strength on the north American continent?

The path to Revolution

That exact same year, 1763, a coalition of great Lakes, Illinois region, and also Ohio an ar American Indians visited war versus the British. The British emerged victorious, but the Indian countries demonstrated they would certainly not quickly submit. Led by an Ottawa male named Pontiac, American indians warred through British soldiers and colonists throughout the frontier native Detroit come the Ohio flow Valley.

The British thought they no longer had actually to court and negotiate v the American Indians. However, they want to finish the costly conflicts between the colonists and American Indians. Thus, King George III issued the Proclamation the 1763 and also temporarily prohibited settlements west that the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists protested. They believed they had actually the ideal to resolve those lands. In the meantime, the British had actually incurred enormous debts during the seven Years’ War and wanted American homesteaders to pay a re-superstructure in their protection. Parliament soon passed a series of restrictions and taxes ~ above the colonies without your consent that at some point drove a wedge in between them and the mom country.

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By the mid-eighteenth century, great Britain had defeated its rivals and emerged as the leading force in phibìc America. The cost of this dominance yet would prove precarious because that the relationship between good Britain and also its thirteen mainland colonies.

Additional chapter Resources

Review Questions

1. I m sorry of the complying with was no a factor that colonization ended up being a major focus that European expedition in the Americas during the period from 1607 come 1763?

Wars of faith in Europe caused countless to look because that an to escape from spiritual persecution.Profits indigenous cash crops such together tobacco detailed economic incentives to establish nests in the brand-new World.Colonial possessions strengthened the call of European nations at home.Cooperative aboriginal populations invited colonization to increase trade.

2. Why go Spain value its understanding in the Caribbean Mexico and Peru more than the valued nests along the Atlantic seaboard in north America during the period from 1607 come 1763?

The English had actually established nests in north America long before the Spanish made any serious attempts to discover the northern continent.French settlers properly fended off Spanish strikes on fort Caroline in Florida.Resistance by native populations in north America tended to be an ext organized and successful 보다 in southern America.Spain concentrated its efforts on the possessions that were most most likely to straight enrich the realm with gold and silver.

3. Throughout the 16 century all the following listed an incentive for continued European exploration and also colonization that the brand-new World except

the good news Reformationthe rise of centralized governments in nation-statesan evaluation of the social accomplishments of American and African societiescompetition for an international commerce and also trade

4. England’s Queen Elizabeth I produced military and also political stress with Spain when she

refused to acknowledge Spanish insurance claims to all North American territoryestablished English nests in Mexico and South Americasupported the Catholic Church over the oppositions of the protestant reformerssanctioned privateers such as Walter Raleigh to strike English pearl on instead of of Spain

5. The establishment of colonies in jamestown by the English in Quebec by the French and also in Albany by the netherlands is ideal explained through which of the complying with statements?

Many European countries acquiesced come Spanish dominance in phibìc America.American Indian populations in north America were successful in driving off Spanish conquistadors.Spain’s emphasis on the Caribbean Mexico and South America opened up the door because that other nations to create footholds in phibìc America.Cooperative initiatives by europe monarchs brought about the successful colonization of phibìc America.

6. The French successfully created territorial insurance claims in

present-day Floridathe St. Lawrence flow Valleythe Hudson flow Valleythe Chesapeake just area

7. The development of the house of Burgesses in Virginia shows the English

were focused on Christian missionary job-related sponsored by the crownwanted cooperation in between their settlers and American ind on a diplomatic levelestablished a representative government in your North American coloniesfollowed an economic policy concentrated on farming especially cotton

8. Every the complying with were accomplishments of English settlements in Virginia by the beforehand 1600s except

the exploration of gold and other precious metals in phibìc Americaelection the the very first representative federal government in the Americasexistence of personal property rightsdevelopment and growth of a tobacco industry

9. The most far-reaching American Indian team in new England that came into conflict with English inhabitants in Massachusetts in the 1630s was

the Narragansettthe Powhatanthe Pequotthe Mohegan

10. I beg your pardon of the following ideal describes the outcome and an effect of the Pequot war of 1636-1639?

The Pequot effectively rallied neighboring American Indian individuals to sign up with their resistance to English settlers.After a lengthy struggle, the Spanish defeated the Pequot and solidified their claims to are in present-day Mexico.The Pequot were beat by the linked forces that the English the Narragansett and the Mohegan.The Pequot were effective in acquiring concessions from the English settlers in return because that support against the Narragansett people.

11. All the adhering to were components that led to the eventual end of American Indian resistance to european explorers and also colonists in north America except

the relatively few Europeans who involved the Americasdivisions and also competition amongst different groups of native Americansthe technological superiority of europe weaponsthe American Indians’ absence of immune to European conditions such as smallpox

12. Which best describes the affect European conditions had on indigenous American populations?

Native American people were maybe to develop immunities come these conditions after exposure.Native Americans and Europeans endured from an exchange of conditions they to be not offered to.Native populations were decimated throughout the Americas.Europeans to be able to construct treatment for these diseases thanks to aid from indigenous American populations.

13. What was the middle Passage?

The long-sought waterway with North America that would provide access to AsiaThe second leg of the profitable triangular trade course that transported human beings from West Africa to the ameri to be offered as slavesThe exchange that goods and services in between the Americas and EuropeThe trade routes developed by the French that associated Quebec come the Mississippi River

14. I beg your pardon of the adhering to statements concerning the African servant trade is most accurate?

Most African slaves were offered to plantation owners in British north America.Brazil and the West Indies were the most common destinations because that African slaves.Because the high mortality rates, the profits to merchants and ship owner from the servant trade were relatively low.The French imported slaves into their areas via the Mississippi river Valley.

15. What was the purpose of slave codes in the phibìc American colonies?

To carry out a perform of rights and also protections because that slavesTo collection laws specifying the legal condition of enslaved individualsTo establish agreement in between European strength on the logistics that the slave tradeTo develop better living conditions during the middle Passage

16. I beg your pardon of the adhering to statements ideal reflects the reasons for slavery in phibìc America?

Labor-intensive chop production compelled cheap labor.A surplus of european laborers depression salaries.The absence of economic opportunities minimal Europeans’ an ideas to clear up in north America.Warfare in between colonial rivals supposed most colonists served together soldiers rather than together laborers.

17. Pilgrims were referred to as “separatists” because

they had been forcibly removed to phibìc America in retaliation for their political beliefsthey sought to develop an independent country separate from Englandthey believed the Church of England could not it is in reformed and also they required to different themselves from itthey properly petitioned because that the development of Rhode Island as a different colony

18. Roger Williams established the colony of Rhode Island after he was forced to flee Massachusetts since of his

support that the Church the Englandstatus as a royally appointed branch of the colonytreatment of surrounding American Indiansdisagreement v the established religious authorities

19. Exactly how did the facility of Maryland comparison with that of the brand-new England colonies?

Maryland was initially established by dutch settlers.Maryland was much less tolerant of spiritual differences 보다 the brand-new England colonies.Maryland was established as a safe haven because that persecuted Catholics.Maryland prohibited slavery.

Free solution Questions

Explain the different varieties of labor systems that arised in the negotiation of new England and Virginia.Explain the motivations because that English immigrant to brand-new England and to the Chesapeake areas in north America.Compare the motivations of England and also France in their settlement in north America.

AP practice Questions

“There goes many a ship to sea with numerous hundred souls in one ship whose weal and also woe is common and is a true photo of a commonwealth or a human combination or society. It hath please out periodically that both papists and also protestants Jews and also Turks might be embarked in one ship; upon which supposal ns affirm . . . These two hinges the none that the papists, protestants, Jews, or Turks be forced to involved the ship’s prayers of prayer nor compelled from their own certain prayers or prayer if they practice any. I further add that I never ever denied that notwithstanding this liberty the commander of this ship ought to command the ship’s food yea and likewise command the justice peace and also sobriety it is in kept and practiced both amongst the seamen and all the passengers . . . If any type of refuse to obey the usual laws and also orders of the delivery . . . The commander or commanders may judge stand up to compel and punish together transgressors according to your deserts and merits.”

Roger Williams Letter come the town of Providence 1655

Refer to the excerpt provided.

1. According to the excerpt from roger Williams his Letter come Providence obstacles what prevailing norm?

Religious freedomSeparation the church and also stateReligious orthodoxySlave labor

2. I m sorry of the adhering to statements would certainly a chronicler use to assistance the debate presented by i get it Williams in the excerpt provided?

People have actually no responsibility to follow law.Religious diversity is dangerous to a steady society.All government actions enforcing legislations are illegitimate.People should be able to practice the faith of your choice.

“Wee should uphold a familiar business together in all meekeness gentlenes patience and also liberality. Wee must joy in eache other; do other’s conditions our oune; rejoice with each other mourne together labour and suffer with each other allwayes haueving prior to our eyes our commission and community in the worke as members the the exact same body. Soe shall wee keepe the unitie that the soul in the link of peace. The Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us as his oune people and will command a blessing upon us in every our wayes. Soe that wee shall view much an ext of his wisdome power goodness and also truthe than formerly wee haue to be acquainted with. Wee candlestick finde the the God the Israell is among us once ten of us shall have the ability to resist a thousand of our enemies; as soon as hee shall make us a prayse and glory that males shall to speak of doing well plantations the Lord do it likely that of brand-new England. For wee must think about that wee chandelier be together a citty top top a hill. The eies the all civilization are uppon us.”

John Winthrop A Modell the Christian Charity 1630

Refer to the excerpt provided.

3. This excerpt from man Winthrop’s sermon offered while en path to the Massachusetts Bay colony might be used by a chronicler to assistance the advancement of which of the following ideas in U.S. History?

Separation of church and stateLimited governmentAbolitionAmerican exceptionalism

4. I m sorry of the following best expresses the key idea of the excerpt provided?

We have to serve as an example to others.We will certainly triumph over our enemiesOthers will praise us for our piety.We must endure persecution because that our beliefs.

Primary Sources

The very first Charter that Virginia:https://lonang.com/library/organic/1606-fcv/

Suggested Resources

Anderson Fred. The battle That made America: A Short history of the French and Indian War. New York: Penguin 2006.

Baker Emerson W. A Storm of Witchcraft: The Salem Trials and also the American Experience. Oxford: Oxford University press 2016.

Berkin Carol. First Generations: women in early american America. New York: Hill and Wang 1997.

Berlin Ira. Plenty of Thousands Gone: The first Two centuries of slavery in north America. Cambridge: Harvard University push 2000.

Calloway Colin. New human beings for All: ind Europeans and also the Remaking of early on America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University push 2013.

Calloway Colin. The scratch of a Pen: 1763 and also the revolution of phibìc America. Oxford: Oxford University push 2007.

Horn James. 1619: Jamestown and also the Forging that American Democracy. New York: simple Books 2018.

Kidd thomas S. American colonial History: Clashing Cultures and Faiths. Brand-new Haven: Yale University push 2016.

Morgan Edmund S. American enslavement American Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton 2003.

Philbrick Nathaniel. Mayflower: A Story of ship Community and War. New York: Penguin 2007.

Taylor Alan. American Colonies: The settling of north America. Brand-new York: Penguin 2001.

Taylor Alan. Colonial America: A really Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University push 2012.

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Williams Tony. The Pox and the Covenant: Mather Franklin and also the Epidemic That adjusted America’s Destiny. Naperville IL: Sourcebooks 2010.