Our target is to identify and also study the homologous and also analogous guts in plants and also animals.

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The Theory

The central idea of organic evolution is the all life on planet shares a usual ancestry and some similarity have progressed in other ways. This are referred to as homologies and analogies. We will look in ~ the different characteristics and identify the homologous and analogous organs in the plants and also animals we have actually selected.


Homology refers to the traits inherited by two various organisms native a typical ancestry.

Homology in Animals

Organs such together bat's wing, wing of birds, seal’s flipper, forelimb of a horse, and also human arm have a common underlying anatomy the was existing in your last common ancestors; because of this their forelimbs space homologous organs.

We have the right to observe the though the shape and also the size of the bones are not similar, over there is a similarity in their framework that is, they have the same collection of bones - humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and also phalanges.

Man provides his hand to grasp and also perform tasks, whales usage their flippers for swimming, bats and birds use their wings because that flight and horses usage their forelimbs because that running.


Frogs, birds, rabbits and also lizards all have in different way shaped forelimbs, mirroring their various lifestyles. However those various forelimbs every share the same set of homologous bones: the humerus, radius, and ulna. Together homologies expose the common ancestry of all these animals.


Homology in Plants

Plants too have homologous structures choose those viewed in animals. In some plants prefer the pitcher, venus fly trap, poinsettia and also cactus, the pipeline show different functions and also shapes from the ‘normal’ pipeline we think about. Every of these pipeline is a homologous structure, acquired from a common genealogical form.

The pitcher plant and the venus flytrap supplies leaves come trap and digest insects. The shining red pipeline of the poinsettia despite leaves, look prefer flower petals. The cactus leaves space modified into small spines that aid reduce water loss and protect the cactus native plant-eaters.


The tendril that a pea plant and also spines that a barberry plant room homologous guts showing similar functions. The tendril that a pea tree is a modification leaf provided for offering mechanical support to the plant. But in the situation of barberry plants, the spines room modified leaves meant for protection. The tendril of a pea plant and also spines that a barberry though originated indigenous leaves, space homologous offal performing various functions.



Analogy describes the similarity in role of two various organisms because of convergent evolution and not common ancestry.

Analogy in Animals

Analogous organs are the the contrary of homologous organs, i beg your pardon have similar functions but different origins. An instance of an analogous trait would certainly be the wings of insects, bats and birds that evolved independently in every lineage individually after diverging native an ancestor without wings. The wings of insects originate from the inner or external surface that the insect’s body. Feather of bird originate from their forelimbs, and also the wing of bats originate from both the fore limb and the membranous skin that the abdomen.


Another example of analogous pets is sugar gliders and also flying squirrels. These two pets can glide in air using their gliding wings. Both species are different from each other in countless ways. Flying squirrel are placental mammals, where as sugar gliders are marsupial mammals like kangaroos. To adapt a usual function, the paris squirrel and sugar glider evolved similar gliding wings.


Analogy in plants

The pipeline of opuntia and peepal are analogous organs in plants. In opuntia the stem is modified into a vast succulent leaf choose structure that performs photosynthesis favor leaves. Peepal leaf is a normal leaf the performs photosynthesis. Therefore both the opuntia and also peepal leaves execute common role through photosynthesis, for this reason they space analogous.

Many the the cacti and also African euphorbias are similar in appearance, being succulent, spiny, water-storing, and adapted to desert problems generally. However these 2 plants belong to different families despite they re-publishing traits follow to the comparable environmental conditions they are put in.

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Potato and sweet potato also show similar characteristics, yet have various origins. Potato is a modified stem expected for warehouse of food. Sweet potato is a modification root likewise meant for the warehouse of food, therefore they space analogous.


Learning OutcomesStudents recognize the state homology and analogy.Students will be able identify organisms that display homological similarities.Students will certainly be able identify organisms that show analogical similarities. Gvgv