Gallium

element 31 of routine table is Gallium with atomic number 31, atomic weight 69.723. Gallium, price Ga, has a Base focused Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Gallium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial surname of Gallium is triels, icosagens. Understand everything around Gallium Facts, physics Properties, chemistry Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Element gallium does not happen in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compound that room in trace quantities in zinc ores and also in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at short temperatures, and also melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).

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Gallium Facts

Read vital information and facts about element Gallium

surname Gallium
atomic Number 31
atomic Symbol Ga
Atomic weight 69.723
phase Solid
shade Silver
Classification post-transition metal
group in routine Table 13
Group Name boron household
period in regular Table 4
Block in routine Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Melting suggest 29.76 °C
Boiling suggest 2204 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 18, 3>
CAS Number CAS7440-55-3

community
13
Al
14
Si
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

discover our interactive routine table


How to locate Gallium on routine Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atom number, variety of protons in the nucleus i beg your pardon is same as number of electrons. The atomic number rises from left come right. Periodic table start at height left ( atomic number 1) and ends at bottom best (atomic number 118). As such you can straight look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on routine table.

Another way to read regular table and locate an facet is through using group number (column) and period number (row). To situate Gallium on periodic table look for cross ar of group 13 and duration 4 in the modern periodic table.

explore Interactive routine Table come Understand and Learn Cool fads

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbit Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Gallium with other elements

Gallium History

The aspect Gallium was discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France . Gallium obtained its surname from Gallia, the Latin name for France

Gallium Presence: variety in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the diversity of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
variety in world 1×10-6%
abundance in sunlight 4×10-6%
diversity in Meteorites 7.6e-06
Abundance in Earth"s late 1.9e-05
variety in seas 3×10-9%
diversity in people N/A

Crystal framework of Gallium

The hard state structure of Gallium is Base focused Orthorhombic.

The decision structure deserve to be defined in regards to its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats chin in 3 dimensional an are to form the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cabinet is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which space the lengths the the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
451.97 766.33 452.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angle (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are explained by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured native a referral lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the crystal are described by the ide of space groups. All possible symmetric species of particles in three-dimensional an are are explained by the 230 space groups (219 distinctive types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

space Group name Cmca
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space Group Number 64
Crystal framework Base centered Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have actually 31 electrons and also the digital shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 3> v Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.


atomic Number 31
Number of electrons (with no charge) 31
Number of Protons 31
Mass Number 70
Number of Neutrons 39
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 3>
Electron construction 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p1
Oxidation State -5;-4;-2;-1 1;2;3
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell framework of Gallium - electrons per energy level


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Ground State digital Configuration of Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

The soil state digital configuration of Neutral Gallium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p1. The portion of Gallium configuration that is tantamount to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated together . Because that atoms with many electrons, this notation can become prolonged and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is essential as that is the Valence electron 3d10 4s2 4p1, electron in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties the the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration that neutral Gallium

Complete floor state digital configuration because that the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Atomic structure of Gallium

Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, when it"s covalent radius is 126 pm.

atomic Radius

136 afternoon (1.36 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.8094512195 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 pm (1.26 Å)
valve der Waals Radius 187 pm
ghost Cross section 2.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Gallium

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Gallium chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.81
ElectronAffinity 28.9 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of Gallium

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies that Gallium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 578.8
2 1979.3
3 2963
4 6180

Gallium physics Properties

Refer to listed below table because that Gallium physics Properties

density 5.904 g/cm3
Molar Volume 11.8094512195 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
mass Modulus N/A
Poisson ratio N/A

Hardness the Gallium - exam to measure of Hardness the Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 60 MPa

Gallium electric Properties

Gallium is Conductor the electricity. Refer to table listed below for the electric properties that Gallium

electric Conductivity 7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting allude 1.083

Gallium Heat and also Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 29 W/(m K)
Thermal expansion 0.00012 K-1

Gallium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic form Diamagnetic
Curie point N/A
massive Magnetic Susceptibility -3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.77e-05

Optical nature of Gallium

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic properties of Gallium

rate of Sound 2740 m/s

Gallium heat Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for thermal properties that Gallium

Melting allude 302.91 K (29.76 °C)
Boiling suggest 2477 K (2204 °C)
vital Temperature N/A
Superconducting suggest 1.083

Enthalpies the Gallium

warm of combination 5.59 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 256 kJ/mol
heat of combustion N/A

Gallium isotopes - atom Properties of Gallium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Gallium has actually 2 steady isotope - 69Ga, 71Ga.


Isotope Isotope massive % abundance T fifty percent Decay mode
56Ga
57Ga
58Ga
59Ga
60Ga
61Ga
62Ga
63Ga
64Ga
65Ga
66Ga
67Ga
68Ga
69Ga 60.108% stable N/A
70Ga
71Ga 39.892% secure N/A
72Ga
73Ga
74Ga
75Ga
76Ga
77Ga
78Ga
79Ga
80Ga
81Ga
82Ga
83Ga
84Ga
85Ga
86Ga

Regulatory and Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-55-3
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000
dot Hazard class 8
period Numbers 2803
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA health and wellness Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition allude N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

list of distinctive identifiers to find the element in assorted chemical it is registered databases

Database identifier number
CAS Number - chemical Abstracts service (CAS) CAS7440-55-3
CID Number CID5360835
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000

Compare Gallium through all Group 13 elements

Gallium vs Boron Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs Nihonium

Compare Gallium with all post-transition metal elements

Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs tin Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs lead Gallium vs Bismuth Gallium vs Nihonium Gallium vs Flerovium Gallium vs Moscovium Gallium vs Livermorium