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an octopus, Flower Garden financial institutions National marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico. NOAA photo Library

An octopus is a marine pet that has actually a soft rounded body with eight long flexible arms around its base which have actually sucking disks able come seize and hold points (as prey). The octopus is an invertebrate, definition that that does not have a backbone.

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Octopuses, squid, cuttlefish, and also nautiluses consist of the cephalopod team (cephalopoda, native the Latin because that “head-foot”). Furthermore, cephalopods room all members the the mollusk phylum (Mollusca), making them relatives of likewise spineless snails, slugs, and also oysters (mollis means “soft” in Latin) (Courage 2013b, 5). Evidence discovered in fossils indigenous the Cambrian duration (500 million year ago) shows that they have been around for a lengthy time. Although it originally had actually a shell, the octopus shed it throughout the late Jurassic (140 million year ago). The octopus lives in all 7 seas.

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Closeup the octopus in an are between two huge rocks. This octopus and also several favor it were observed at approximately 2500 meters. NOAA Okeanos explorer Program, Galapagos Rift expedition 2011. NOAA photo Library

Characteristics

Because it does not have a backbone, the octopus can maneuver in and also out the very tiny spaces, regularly within an area similar to the size of a person eye. The octopus has two eye which are near-sighted and that are capable of detecting polarized light (polarized irradiate waves space light waves in i beg your pardon the vibrations happen in a solitary plane). However, it has actually yet come be figured out if the octopus can detect color. Further, the octopus has actually eight arms, 3 hearts, blue blood (because your blood is higher in copper together opposed to iron), and also suckers which have the right to taste and also grab. When observed in its herbal habitat, the octopus deserve to be checked out both walking and running. The is capable of propelling itself at speed of as much as 25 mph.

Behavior

The octopus is qualified of rapid camouflage. This cephalopod is not only capable of transforming color; yet it can likewise modify that is texture. The ink it squirts is not only used for camouflage; but, likewise to harm its enemies. Octopuses are well-known to build shelters (Mather 1995). The octopus’s ability to use its suckers come taste and grab demonstrates both consciousness and also subjective behavior. In enhancement to manipulating objects, octopus suckers room constantly gathering information around their environment, including tactile and chemical signals (Courage 2013b, 157). Mather (1994) has also described just how some octopuses enhance crevices in rocks whereby they take it shelter, enlarging the cavity by removed stones and also sand and bringing stones, shells, claws from molted crabs, and even bottles to partly bcg-tower.comk the entrance. In a laboratory setting, researchers are mindful to for sure tanks whereby they have actually octopuses because the octopus is well-known to press the lids off tanks and also subsequently walk throughout a lab. An octopus is qualified of unscrewing a lid native a jar. Octopuses space predisposed to bipedal cg-tower.comomotion. In the octopus, this is achieved by the action of transverse, longitudinal, and also oblique bundles of muscle in the lack of any skeletal assistance (Margheri and also others 2011).

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an ornate octopus (Octopus ornatus). Northwest Hawaiian Islands, 2004. Dwayne Meadows, photographer. NOAA photograph Library

Intelligence

The octopus has actually a complex nervous system and also is capable of learning and demonstrating memory. The neurons can be found in the eight of the octopus and also each arm has between 200 to 300 suckers and also a bundle of nerves that controls regional movement and also gathers sensory information, which the processes and also relays to the brain (Judson 2016). They have actually been it was observed returning her gaze; and, castle may even extend one of their arms as if inviting friend on a to walk to discover the s floor. They it seems ~ to reap playing through toys as they communicate in beat behavior and they are qualified of solving straightforward mazes v frequency. In both laboratory and ocean settings, the octopus is well-known to acknowledge faces. Vision is well developed in this types as assorted visual discriminations are readily learned, and in this the ability of the octopus are comparable with those that vertebrates (Nixon 2003). Once a scientist has adjusted his clothes or changed his figure in part fashion, the octopus is tho able to acknowledge the individual; and, if they have had actually a previous optimistic experience, the is unlikely that they will squirt ink. Yes, the octopus deserve to really acquire to know you.

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typical octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Virgin archipelago Coral Reef national Monument, 2001. Caroline Rogers, photographer. Nationwide Park Service, NP gallery

Interesting facts

Cephalopod suckers were, however, the inspiration for suction cups—both the ancient variety, make from gourds, and the modern-day iteration, patented in 1882. The is considered the many intelligent invertebrate (Courage 2013b, 156) Albert Titus, an technician at the university of Buffalo, has used the octopus retina together a model to build an man-made visual handling system. Through the “o–retina,” i beg your pardon is make from silicone chips, he and his team hope to diversify the type of visual information that have the right to be gleaned indigenous robotic explorers in exotic environments—whether in the deep s or deep in space (Courage 2013b, 180). The large Pacific Octopus is the largest types of octopus in the world. A lion is a mammal choose us; one octopus is put together fully differently, with 3 hearts, a mind that wraps around its throat, and also a extending of slime rather of hair (Montgomery 2015, 12-13). An octopus has actually a beak and uses it to crush food such together crabs and mollusks in order to eat. Smart, solid and flexible, the octopus is an enticing design for one entirely brand-new kind that many-armed, multitalented robot (Courage, 2013a).
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Octopus (Octopus sp.), Northwest Hawaiian islands Dwayne Meadows, photographer, 2004. NOAA photograph Library

Related Websites

Further Reading

Courage, Katherine Harmon. "How to develop a robot octopus." Scientific American, v. 309, Oct. 2013: 84-87. Judson, Olivia. "The power of eight." National geographic, v. 230, Nov. 2016: 63, 66-67, 70-71, 75, 80-81. Margheri, L., and others. "Non-invasive research of Octopus vulgaris arm morphology utilizing ultrasound." Journal of experimental biology, v. 214, Nov. 15, 2011: 3727-3731. Mather, Jennifer A. "Cognition in cephalopods." Advances in the study of behavior, v. 24, 1995: 317-353. Mather, Jennifer A. "Home selection and change by juvenile Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): specialized intelligence and also tool use?" Journal of zoology, v. 233, July 1994: 359-368. Yin, Steph. "A genetic oddity may offer octopuses and also squids their smarts." New York times, Apr. 6, 2017. Retrieved native ProQuest database top top Apr. 13, 2017.

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