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Several different tools are supplied to detect and also measure radiation, consisting of Geiger counters, scintillation counters (scintillators), and radiation dosimeters (Figure (PageIndex1)). More than likely the best-known radiation instrument, the Geiger counter (also called the Geiger-Müller counter) detects and measures radiation. Radiation causes the ionization of the gas in a Geiger-Müller tube. The rate of ionization is proportional come the quantity of radiation. These kind of tools measure alpha and beta radiation quite well. If a Geiger counter is altered, it can detect gamma and x-rays. A scintillation counter includes a scintillator (a product that emits irradiate (luminesces) when excited by ionization radiation) and a sensor that converts the light right into an electric signal. This tool can efficiently detect gamma, x-rays and also beta particles. Radiation dosimeters likewise measure ionizing radiation and are frequently used come determine personal radiation exposure. Frequently used species are electronic, movie badge, thermoluminescent, and quartz fiber dosimeters.

api/deki/files/56212/CNX_cg-tower.com_21_06_Exposure1.jpg?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex2): various units are provided to measure up the price of emission from a radioactive source, the energy that is soaked up from the source, and the amount of damage the soaked up radiation does. (CC BY-SA 3.0; OpenStax).

As presented in Table (PageIndex2), the average human is exposed to background radiation indigenous a selection of sources. Radon gas represents the greatest resource of ionizing radiation. Indoor exposure to this alpha ( (alpha )) emitter could increase the likelihood of emerging lung cancer.

Table (PageIndex2): Average annual Radiation Exposure (Approximate) source Amount (mrem)
radon gas 200
medical sources 53
radioactive atom in the body naturally 39
terrestrial resources (soil) 28
cosmic sources 28
consumer products 10
nuclear energy 0.05
Total 358

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